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Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 778–792 | Cite as

Influence of inflow discharge and bed erodibility on outburst flood of landslide dam

  • Ming-jun Zhou
  • Gordon G. D. ZhouEmail author
  • Kahlil Fredrick E. Cui
  • Dong-ri Song
  • Xue-qiang Lu
Article
  • 10 Downloads

Abstract

Accurate prediction of the hydrographs of outburst floods induced by landslide dam overtopping failure is necessary for hazard prevention and mitigation. In this study, flume model tests on the breaching of landslide dams were conducted. Unconsolidated soil materials with wide grain size distributions were used to construct the dam. The effects of different upstream inflow discharges and downstream bed soil erosion on the outburst peak discharge were investigated. Experimental results reveal that the whole hydrodynamic process of landslide dam breaching can be divided into three stages as defined by clear inflection points and peak discharges. The larger the inflow discharge, the shorter the time it takes to reach the peak discharge, and the larger the outburst flood peak discharge. The scale of the outburst floods was found to be amplified by the presence of an erodible bed located downstream of the landslide dam. This amplification decreases with the increase of upstream inflow. In addition, the results show that the existence of an erodible bed increases the density of the outburst flow, increasing its probability of transforming from a sediment flow to a debris flow.

Keywords

Landslide dam Inflow discharge Erodible bed Outburst flood 

Notations

A

the intersection point of downstream dam crest

B

the intersection point of upstream dam crest

Bc

width of dam crest

d16, d50, d84

grain sizes; subscript indicates percent smaller

e

void ratio

g

acceleration due to gravity

Hd

height of landslide dam

he

height of erodible bed

Hr

height of water level

Hw

height of water above final breach bottom

h0

the depth of dam notch

PE

potential energy of reservoir

Qin

the upstream inflow discharge

Qout

the outburst flood discharge

Qp

the outburst peak discharge

t

time

t0

the initial time of dam breaching

tp

time to peak discharge from the initiation of dam failure

V1

volume of dammed lake

Vd

volume of landslide dam

Vw

volume of water above the final breach

w0

the width of dam notch

Wd

width of landslide dam

α

coefficient for dam erodibility

β

rate of change of outburst discharge

β1, β2

rate of change of outburst discharge in Stage 1, Stage 2 respectively

σg

dimensionless measure of the spread in the grain-size

θ

angle of large flume

θ1

angle of upstream dam toe

θ2

angle of downstream dam toe

ΔQi

relative dimensionless discharge

η

the dimensionless density of outburst floods

ρd

the density of debris flow

ρf

the density of outburst flood

ρs

unit weight of solid material

ϕ

friction angle of solid materials

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Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41731283), the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (Grant No. QYZDB-SSW-DQC010), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).

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Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Earth Surface Process / Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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