Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 516–528 | Cite as

Microclimate regulation efficiency of the rural homegarden agroforestry system in the Western Sichuan Plain, China

  • Qin Liu
  • Pei-hao PengEmail author
  • Yu-kuan Wang
  • Pei Xu
  • Ying-man Guo
Article
  • 53 Downloads

Abstract

Traditional rural homegarden agroforestry systems (referred to as homegarden) in the Western Sichuan Plain of China are often referred to as “Linpan” in Chinese. These homegardens are usually composed of farm houses, trees, bamboos, and small patches of land for flowers, fruits and vegetables. Over the Western Sichuan Plain’s area of approximately 18,800 km2, there were more than 200,000 homegardens, accommodating 72.5% of the region’s rural population. As a unique local, cultural, and ecological resource, homegardens continuously support peasant households with provisioning, regulation, and landscape ecosystem services. This study combined low height remote sensing used unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photography, field investigation, and instrument monitoring. We try to identify the composition and structural characteristics of homegardens, as well as climatic regulation effects of the different types of homegardens. Temperature data were collected both for summer (June to August 2016) and winter (December 2016 to February 2017). The result shows that: (1) the average area of homegardens was 0.67ha (sizes ranging from 0.16ha to 1.24ha), and with vegetation coverage 43.5%-76.9% (including 310 plant species). (2)In comparision with outside the homegardens, the average temperature inside the homegardens was significantly lower in summer (approximately 0.31 °C -0.90°C). Although, the lowest summer temperature was differentiatee in between 13:30-16:00. Especially, the thermal effects of the home gardens were ranged from 2.00°C-2.65°C at high temperatures (≥30°C). (3) The cooling effect of homegardens were positively correlated (p<0.05) with tree area(X1), vegetation coverage(X2), tree coverage(X3), tree species(X4), and tree biomassper unit area(X5), and the contribution rate was represented by X3>X4>X5>X2>X1. (4)This study indicates the major role of homegardens for climate regulation and energy efficiency, providing suggestions for homegarden transformation and construction planning for new rural communities.

Keywords

Homegarden Linpan Western Sichuan Plain Climate regulation Energy saving and emission reduction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the national Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41401664) and the “135” Strategic Program of the Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS (No. SDS-135-1703).

References

  1. Alcazar SS, Olivieri F, Neila J (2016) Green roofs: Experimental and analytical study of its potential for urban microclimate regulation in Mediterranean-continental climates. Urban Climate 17: 304–317.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2016.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson GB, Bell ML (2011) Heat Waves in the United States: Mortality Risk during Heat Waves and Effect Modification by Heat Wave Characteristics in 43 U.S. Communities. Environmental Health Perspectives 119(2): 210.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1002313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asgarian A, Amiri BJ, Sakieh Y (2015) Assessing the effect of green cover spatial patterns on urban land surface temperature using landscape metrics approach. Urban Ecosystems 18(1): 209–222.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-014-0387-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Caborn JM (2010) The influence of shelter-belts on microclimate. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 81(347): 112–115.  https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49708134727 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cao X, Onishi A, Chen J, et al. (2010) Quantifying the cool island intensity of urban parks using ASTER and IKONOS data. Landscape & Urban Planning 96(4): 224–231.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2010.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen QB (2011) Researches on the modes about conservation and development of Linpan in western Sichuan plain. Chinese Forestry Press, Beijing, China. pp. 48–50.(In Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. Chen XL, Zhao HM, Li PX, et al. (2006) Remote sensing image-based analysis of the relationship between urban heat island and land use/cover changes. Remote Sensing of Environment 104(2): 133–146.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2005.11.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Declet-Barreto J, Brazel AJ, Martin CA, et al. (2013) Creating the park cool island in an inner-city neighborhood: heat mitigation strategy for Phoenix, AZ. Urban Ecosystems 16(3): 617–635.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-012-0278-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Doick K (2013) Air temperature regulation by urban trees and green infrastructure. Cfa Newsletter 60:14.Google Scholar
  10. Escobedo FJ, Kroeger T, Wagner JE. (2011) Urban forests and pollution mitigation: analyzing ecosystem services and disservices. Environmental Pollution 159(8–9): 2078–2087.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fang ZR (2013) Settlement culture Study of Linpan in Chengdu Plain. Southeast University Press, Nanjing, China.(In Chinese)Google Scholar
  12. Galhena DH, Freed R, Maredia KM (2013) Home gardens: a promising approach to enhance household food security and wellbeing. Agriculture & Food Security 2(1): 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1186/2048-7010-2-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gao X, Xu A, Liu, L, et al. (2017) Understanding rural housing abandonment in China’s rapid urbanization. Habitat International 67: 13–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2017.06.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Georgi NJ, Zafiriadis K (2006) The impact of park trees on microclimate in urban areas. Urban Ecosystems 9(3): 195–209.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-006-8590-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guo YM, Xu P, Liu Q, et al. (2017) Spatial distribution characteristics of Linpan in Chengdu plain-a case of Pi county. Journal of Southwest China Normal University(Natural Science Edition) 42(5): 211–126.(In Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. Hao L, Fang Li (2007) The Inter-annual Climate change and heat island effect of Chengdu during the recent fifty-years. Scientia Meteorologica Sinica 27(6): 648–654.(In Chinese)Google Scholar
  17. Herrmann J, Matzarakis A (2012) Mean radiant temperature in idealised urban canyons--examples from Freiburg, Germany. International Journal of Biometeorology 56(1): 199.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-010-0394-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jenerette GD, Harlan SL, Brazel A, et al. (2007) Regional relationships between vegetation, surface temperature, and human settlement in a rapidly urbanizing ecosystem. Landscape Ecology 22(3): 353–365.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-006-9032-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Leiwenjiang M (2008) Population, urbanization, and the environment. World Watch 9(1): 235–246.Google Scholar
  20. Kabir ME, Webb EL. (2009) Household and homegarden characteristics in southwestern Bangladesh. Agroforestry Systems 75(2): 129–145.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-008-9142-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu Q, Wang YK, Guo YM, et al. (2018) Morphological characteristics and composition of plant species and their distrbution patterns in Linpan of Chengdu plain. Acta Ecologica Sinica 38(10): 1–9.(In Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. Liu XW, Zhang DX, Chen BM (2008) Characteristics of China,s town-level land use in rapid urbanization stage. Acta Geographica Sinica 63(3): 301–310.(In Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Karthigesu J, Sivachndiran S, Pushpakumara D, et al. (2016) Ecosystem services of homegarden agroforestry in Jaffna Peninsula. International Conference on Dry Zone Agriculture. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311653897 Google Scholar
  24. Kong F, Yin H, James P, et al. (2014) Effects of spatial pattern of greenspace on urban cooling in a large metropolitan area of eastern China. Landscape & Urban Planning 128(3): 35–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.04.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Koohafkan P, Altieri MA (2011) Globally important agricultural heritage systems (GIAHS). A Legacy for the Future.Google Scholar
  26. Kovats RS, Hajat S (2008) Heat stress and public health: a critical review. Annual Review of Public Health 29(1): 41.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090843 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kumar BM, Nair PKR (2004) The enigma of tropical homegardens. Agroforestry Systems 61–62(1–3): 135–152.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AGFO.0000028995.13227.ca Google Scholar
  28. Lemonsu A, Masson V, Shashuabar L, et al. (2012) Inclusion of vegetation in the town energy balance model for modelling urban green areas. Geoscientific Model Development Discussions 5(2): 1295–1340.  https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-5-1377-2012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Leuzinger S, Vogt R, Christian K (2010) Tree surface temperature in an urban environment. Agricultural & Forest Meteorology 150(1): 56–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li J, Song C, Cao L, et al. (2011) Impacts of landscape structure on surface urban heat islands: A case study of Shanghai, China. Remote sensing of Environment 115(12): 3249–3263.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2011.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Maroyi A (2009) Traditional homegardens and rural livelihoods in Nhema, Zimbabwe: a sustainable agroforestry system. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 16(1): 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13504500902745895 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mihalakakou G, Santamouris M, Papanikolaou N, et al. (2004) Simulation of the urban heat island phenomenon in mediterranean climates. Pure & Applied Geophysics 161(2): 429–451.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-003-2447-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mohri H, Lahoti S, Saito O, et al. (2013) Assessment of ecosystem services in homegarden systems in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Ecosystem Services 5: 124–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2013.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nath AJ, Das AK (2011) Carbon storage and sequestration in bamboo-based smallholder homegardens of Barak Valley, Assam. Current Science 100(2): 229–233. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236000939 Google Scholar
  35. Oliveira S, Andrade H, Vaz T (2011) The cooling effect of green spaces as a contribution to the mitigation of urban heat: A case study in Lisbon. Building & Environment 46(11): 2186–2194.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.04.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Peters EB, Mcfadden JP (2010) Influence of seasonality and vegetation type on suburban microclimates. Urban Ecosystems 13(4): 443–460.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-010-0128-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Potchter O, Cohen P, Bitan A (2006) Climatic behavior of various urban parks during hot and humid summer in the mediterranean city of Tel Aviv, Israel. International Journal of Climatology 26(12): 1695–1711.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1330 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Prianto E, Windarta J, Harianja B (2017) The Role of Vegetation and Landscape in the Energy Efficiency-of Tropical Building. Advanced Science Letters 23(3): 2211–2214.  https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2017.8671 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Qin Z, Li Z, Cheng FY, et al. (2016) Cooling and Humidifying effects of five landscape plant communities on summer days in Beijing. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 52(1): 37–47.(In Chinese)Google Scholar
  40. Rahman MA, Moser A, Gold A, et al. (2018) Vertical air temperature gradients under the shade of two contrasting urban tree species during different types of summer days. Science of the Total Environment 633: 100–111.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Saha SK, Nair PKR, Nair VD, et al. (2009) Soil carbon stock in relation to plant diversity of homegardens in Kerala, India. Agroforestry Systems 76(1): 53–65.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-009-9228-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sahoo UK (2009) Traditional home gardens and livelihood security in North-East India. Journal of Food Agriculture & Environment 7(2): 665–670. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237747312 Google Scholar
  43. Salmond JA, Tadaki M, Vardoulakis S, et al. (2016) Health and climate related ecosystem services provided by street trees in the urban environment. Environmental Health 15(Suppl 1): 36.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-016-0103-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Saneinejad S, Moonen P, Carmeliet J (2014) Comparative assessment of various heat island mitigation measures. Building & Environment 73(3): 162–170.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2013.12.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Santamouris M, Synnefa A, Karlessi T (2011) Using advanced cool materials in the urban built environment to mitigate heat islands and improve thermal comfort conditions. Solar Energy 85(12): 3085–3102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2010.12.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sanusi R, Johnstone D, May P, et al. (2017) Microclimate benefits that different street tree species provide to sidewalk pedestrians relate to differences in Plant Area Index. Landscape & Urban Planning 157: 502–511.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.08.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shao YC, zhuang JY, Li EH, et al. (2015) Regulating effects of urban canopy on microclimate. Chinese Journal of Ecology 34(6): 1532–1539.(In Chinese)Google Scholar
  48. Shu B (2012) Studies of agricultural landscppe in Chengdu plain. Southwest Jiaotong University Press, Chengdu, China.(In Chinese)Google Scholar
  49. Skelhorn CP, Levermore G, Lindley SJ (2016) Impacts on cooling energy consumption due to the UHI and vegetation changes in Manchester, UK. Energy & Buildings 122: 150–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.01.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Streiling S, Matzarakis A (2003) Influence of single and small clusters of trees on the bioclimate of a city: A case study. Journal of Treeiculture 29(6): 309–316. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230754039 Google Scholar
  51. Sun X, Li X, Guan Z, et al. (2017) The use of meteorological data to assess the cooling service of forests. Ecosystem Services 25: 28–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.03.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Trinh LN, Watson JW, Hue NN, et al. (2003) Agrobiodiversity conservation and development in Vietnamese home gardens. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 97(1–3): 317–344.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(02)00228-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yan H, Wu F, Dong L (2018) Influence of a large urban park on the local urban thermal environment. Science of the Total Environment 622–623: 882–891.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.327 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yao SM, Zhang PY, Yu C, et al. (2014) The theory and practic of new urbanzation in China. Scientia Geographica Sinica 34(6): 641–647.(In Chinese)Google Scholar
  55. Zhang B, Gao JX, Xie GD, et al. (2012) Preliminary evaluation of air temperature reduction of urban green spaces in Beijing. Acta Ecologica Sinica 32(24): 7698–7705.(In Chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhang H, Uwasu M, Hara K, et al. (2011) Sustainable Urban Development and Land Use Change-A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta in China. Sustainability 3(7): 1074–1089.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su2071074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhuang JY, Zhang JC, Yang Y, et al. (2016) Effect of forest shelter-belt as a regional climate improver along the old course of the Yellow River, China. Agroforestry Systems 6: 393–401.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-016-9928-9 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Earth SciencesChengdu University of TechnologyChengduChina
  2. 2.Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations