Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 77–94 | Cite as

Mapping of moraine dammed glacial lakes and assessment of their areal changes in the central and eastern Himalayas using satellite data

  • Sazeda BegamEmail author
  • Dhrubajyoti Sen


The relatively rapid recession of glaciers in the Himalayas and formation of moraine dammed glacial lakes (MDGLs) in the recent past have increased the risk of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOF) in the countries of Nepal and Bhutan and in the mountainous territory of Sikkim in India. As a product of climate change and global warming, such a risk has not only raised the level of threats to the habitation and infrastructure of the region, but has also contributed to the worsening of the balance of the unique ecosystem that exists in this domain that sustains several of the highest mountain peaks of the world. This study attempts to present an up to date mapping of the MDGLs in the central and eastern Himalayan regions using remote sensing data, with an objective to analyse their surface area variations with time from 1990 through 2015, disaggregated over six episodes. The study also includes the evaluation for susceptibility of MDGLs to GLOF with the least criteria decision analysis (LCDA). Forty two major MDGLs, each having a lake surface area greater than 0.2 km2, that were identified in the Himalayan ranges of Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim, have been categorized according to their surface area expansion rates in space and time. The lakes have been identified as located within the elevation range of 3800 m and 6800 m above mean sea level (a msl). With a total surface area of 37.9 km2, these MDGLs as a whole were observed to have expanded by an astonishing 43.6% in area over the 25 year period of this study. A factor is introduced to numerically sort the lakes in terms of their relative yearly expansion rates, based on their interpretation of their surface area extents from satellite imageries. Verification of predicted GLOF events in the past using this factor with the limited field data as reported in literature indicates that the present analysis may be considered a sufficiently reliable and rapid technique for assessing the potential bursting susceptibility of the MDGLs. The analysis also indicates that, as of now, there are eight MDGLs in the region which appear to be in highly vulnerable states and have high chances in causing potential GLOF events anytime in the recent future.


Glacier retreat Lakes mapping Moraine dammed glacial lake (MDGL) Surface area change of lakes Landsat imagery data Least criteria decision analysis (LCDA) 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



We are grateful to the Associate Editor, the Editor and three anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments which improved the manuscript significantly and brought it to this present form. Thanks are also due to the fellowship provided to the first author by the Ministry of Human Resources Development, Government of India.

Supplementary material

11629_2018_5023_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (72 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 72 KB.


  1. Ageta Y, Higuchi K (1984) Estimation of Mass Balance Components of a Summer–Accumulation Type Glacier in the Nepal Himalaya. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography 66(3): 249–255. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ageta Y, Iwata S, Yabuki H, et al. (2000) Expansion of glacier lakes in recent decades in the Bhutan Himalayas. IAHS publication 13(September): 165–176.Google Scholar
  3. Ageta Y, Naito N, Iwata S, et al. (2003) Glacier distribution in the Himalayas and glacier shrinkage from 1963 to 1993 in the Bhutan Himalayas. Bulletin of Glaciological Research 20: 29–40.Google Scholar
  4. Aggarwal S, Rai SC, Thakur PK, et al. (2017) Inventory and recently increasing GLOF susceptibility of glacial lakes in Sikkim, Eastern Himalaya. Geomorphology 295(15): 39–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bahuguna IM, Kulkarni AV, Nayak S, et al. (2007) Himalayan Glacier Retreat Using IRS 1C PAN Stereo Data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28(2): 437–442. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bajracharya SR, Maharjan SB, Shrestha F (2011) Glaciers Shrinking in Nepal Himalaya. In Climate Change–Geophysical Foundations and Ecological Effects. InTech.Google Scholar
  7. Bajracharya SR, Maharjan SB, Shrestha F (2014) The Status and Decadal Change of Glaciers in Bhutan from the 1980s to 2010 Based on Satellite Data. Annals of Glaciology 55(66): 159–166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bajracharya SR, Mool P (2009) Glaciers, Glacial Lakes and Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in the Mount Everest Region, Nepal. Annals of Glaciology 50(53): 81–86. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benn DI, Bolch T, Hands K, et al. (2012) Response of Debris–Covered Glaciers in the Mount Everest Region to Recent Warming, and Implications for Outburst Flood Hazards. Earth–Science Reviews 114 (1): 156–174. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhardwaj A, Singh MK, Joshi PK, et al. (2015) A Lake Detection Algorithm (LDA) Using Landsat 8 Data: A Comparative Approach in Glacial Environment. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 38(June): 150–163. Google Scholar
  11. Bolch T, Buchroithner MF, Peters J, et al. (2008) Identification of Glacier Motion and Potentially Dangerous Glacial Lakes in the Mt. Everest Region/Nepal Using Spaceborne Imagery. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 8(6): 1329–1340. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bolch T, Pieczonka T, Benn DI (2011) Multi–Decadal Mass Loss of Glaciers in the Everest Area (Nepal Himalaya) Derived from Stereo Imagery. The Cryosphere 5(2): 349–358. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brahmbhatt RM, Bahuguna IM, Rathore BP, et al. (2017) Significance of Glacio–Morphological Factors in Glacier Retreat: A Case Study of Part of Chenab Basin, Himalaya. Journal of Mountain Science 14(1): 128–141. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buchroithner MF (1995) Problems of Mountain Hazard Mapping Using Spaceborne Remote Sensing Techniques. Advances in Space Research, Natural Hazards: Monitoring and Assessment Using Remote Sensing Technique 15(11): 57–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buchroithner MF, Bolch T (2014) Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs)—Mapping the Hazard of a Threat to High Asia and Beyond. Impact of Global Changes on Mountains: Responses and Adaptation, 324.Google Scholar
  16. Carey M (2005) Living and Dying with Glaciers: People’s Historical Vulnerability to Avalanches and Outburst Floods in Peru. Global and Planetary Change, International Young Scientists’ Global Change Conference 2003, 47(2): 122–134. Google Scholar
  17. Carrivick JL, Tweed FS (2016) A Global Assessment of the Societal Impacts of Glacier Outburst Floods. Global and Planetary Change 144(September): 1–16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chander G, Markham BL, Helder DL (2009) Summary of Current Radiometric Calibration Coefficients for Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, and EO–1 ALI Sensors. Remote Sensing of Environment 113 (5): 893–903. Google Scholar
  19. Chen XQ, Cui P, Li Y, et al. (2007) Changes in Glacial Lakes and Glaciers of Post–1986 in the Poiqu River Basin, Nyalam, Xizang (Tibet). Geomorphology 88(3): 298–311. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Childs C (2004) Interpolating Surfaces in ArcGIS Spatial Analyst. ArcUser, July–September. 3235: 569. Google Scholar
  21. Clague JJ, Evans SG (2000) A Review of Catastrophic Drainage of Moraine–Dammed Lakes in British Columbia. Quaternary Science Reviews 19(17): 1763–1783. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Debnath M, Syiemlieh HJ, Sharma MC, et al. (2018) Glacial lake dynamics and lake surface temperature assessment along the Kangchengayo–Pauhunri Massif, Sikkim Himalaya, 1988–2014. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment 9: 26–41. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dwivedi SK (2000) The Tam Pokhari glacier lake outburst flood of 3 September 1998. Journal of Nepal Geological Society 22: 539–546.Google Scholar
  24. Emmer A (2018) GLOFs in the WOS: bibliometrics, geographies and global trends of research on glacial lake outburst floods (Web of Science, 1979–2016). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 18(3): 813–827. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fisher A, Flood N, Danaher T (2016) Comparing Landsat Water Index Methods for Automated Water Classification in Eastern Australia. Remote Sensing of Environment 175(March): 167–182. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fujita K, Sakai A, Nuimura T, et al. (2009) Recent Changes in Imja Glacial Lake and Its Damming Moraine in the Nepal Himalaya Revealed by in Situ Surveys and Multi–Temporal ASTER Imagery. Environmental Research Letters 4(4): 045205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fujita K, Suzuki R, Nuimura T, et al. (2008) Performance of ASTER and SRTM DEMs, and Their Potential for Assessing Glacial Lakes in the Lunana Region, Bhutan Himalaya. Journal of Glaciology 54 (185): 220–228. Google Scholar
  28. Fujita K, Takechi N, Seko K (1998) Glaciological Observations of Yala Glacier in Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalayas, 1994 and 1996. Bulletin of Glacier Research 16: 75–78.Google Scholar
  29. Gardelle J, Arnaud Y, Berthier E (2011) Contrasted Evolution of Glacial Lakes along the Hindu Kush Himalaya Mountain Range between 1990 and 2009. Global and Planetary Change 75(1): 47–55. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gardner AS, Moholdt G, Cogley JG, et al. (2013) A Reconciled Estimate of Glacier Contributions to Sea Level Rise: 2003 to 2009. Science 340(6134): 852–857. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Raj BK, Kumar VK, Remya SN (2013) Remote sensing–based inventory of glacial lakes in Sikkim Himalaya: semi–automated approach using satellite data. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk 4(3): 241–53. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grover VI, Borsdorf A, Breuste J, et al. (2014) Impact of Global Changes on Mountains: Responses and Adaptation. CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Haeberli W, Hoelzle M, Maisch M (1998) Gletscher–Schlüsselindikatoren Der Globalen Klimaänderung. In: Wissenschaftliche Fakten, (eds J.L. Lozàn, H. Graszl and P. Hupfer). Warnsignal Klima, Hamburg 21: 213–221.Google Scholar
  34. Hakeem KA, Abirami S, Rao VV, et al. (2018) Updated Inventory of Glacial Lakes in Teesta Basin Using Remote Sensing Data for Use in GLOF Risk Assessment. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing 46(3): 463–470. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Haritashya UK, Kargel JS, Shugar DH, et al. (2018) Evolution and Controls of Large Glacial Lakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Remote Sensing 10(5): 798. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harrison S, Kargel JS, Huggel C, et al. (2018) Climate change and the global pattern of moraine–dammed glacial lake outburst floods. The Cryosphere 12: 1195–1209. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hessl A, Miller J, Kernan J, et al. (2007) Mapping Paleo–Fire Boundaries from Binary Point Data: Comparing Interpolation Methods. The Professional Geographer 59(1): 87–104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Huggel C, Kääb A, Haeberli W, et al. (2002) Remote Sensing Based Assessment of Hazards from Glacier Lake Outbursts: A Case Study in the Swiss Alps. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 39(2): 316–330. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. ICIMOD (2011) Glacial Lakes and Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in Nepal. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu.Google Scholar
  40. IPCC (2001a) Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [McCarthy, J.J., et al. (eds)].Google Scholar
  41. IPCC (2001b) IPCC Third Assessment Report–Climate Change 2001. Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Summary for Policy Makers. Geneva, WMO and UNEP.Google Scholar
  42. Ives JD, Shrestha RB, Mool PK (2010) Formation of Glacial Lakes in the Hindu Kush–Himalayas and GLOF Risk Assessment, Kathmandu: ICIMOD.Google Scholar
  43. Jain SK, Sinha RK, Chaudhary A, et al. (2015) Expansion of a Glacial Lake, Tsho Chubda, Chamkhar Chu Basin, Hindukush Himalaya, Bhutan. Natural Hazards 75(2): 1451–1464. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jiang S, Nie Y, Liu Q, et al. (2018) Glacier Change, Supraglacial Debris Expansion and Glacial Lake Evolution in the Gyirong River Basin, Central Himalayas, between 1988 and 2015. Remote Sensing 10(7): 986. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kääb A, Berthier E, Nuth C, et al. (2012) Contrasting Patterns of Early Twenty–First–Century Glacier Mass Change in the Himalayas. Nature 488(7412): 495–498. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kervyn M, Ernst GG, Goossens R, et al. (2008) Mapping Volcano Topography with Remote Sensing: ASTER vs. SRTM. International Journal of Remote Sensing 29(22): 6515–6538. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Khromova TE, Dyurgerov MB, Barry RG (2003) Late–twentieth Century Changes in Glacier Extent in the Akshirak Range, Central Asia, Determined from Historical Data and ASTER Imagery. Geophysical Research Letters 30(16). Google Scholar
  48. Komori J (2008) Recent Expansions of Glacial Lakes in the Bhutan Himalayas. Quaternary International 184(1): 177–186. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Korup O, Tweed F (2007) Ice, Moraine, and Landslide Dams in Mountainous Terrain. Quaternary Science Reviews 26(25): 3406–3422. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kougkoulos I, Cook SJ, Jomelli V, et al. (2018) Use of multicriteria decision analysis to identify potentially dangerous glacial lakes. Science of the Total Environment 621: 1453–1466. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kumar B, Murugesh Prabhu TS (2012) Impacts of Climate Change: Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs). Climate Change in Sikkim Patterns, Impacts and Initiatives. Information and Public Relations Department, Government of Sikkim, Gangtok.Google Scholar
  52. Landsat USGS (2016) 8 (L8) Data Users Handbook Version 2.0. EROS, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.Google Scholar
  53. Li J, Sheng Y (2012) An Automated Scheme for Glacial Lake Dynamics Mapping Using Landsat Imagery and Digital Elevation Models: A Case Study in the Himalayas. International Journal of Remote Sensing 33(16): 5194–5213. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liu JJ, Cheng ZL, Su PC (2014) The Relationship between Air Temperature Fluctuation and Glacial Lake Outburst Floods in Tibet, China. Quaternary International 321(February): 78–87. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Liu SY, Shangguan DH, Xu JL, et al. (2014) Glaciers in China and Their Variations. In Global Land Ice Measurements from Space, 583–608. Springer Praxis Books. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Google Scholar
  56. Lu GY, Wong DW (2008) An Adaptive Inverse–Distance Weighting Spatial Interpolation Technique. Computers & Geosciences 34(9): 1044–1055. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Markham BL, Helder DL (2012) Forty–Year Calibrated Record of Earth–Reflected Radiance from Landsat: A Review. Remote Sensing of Environment, Landsat Legacy Special Issue, 122 (July): 30–40. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McFeeters SK (1996) The use of the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) in the delineation of open water features. International Journal of Remote Sensing 17(7): 1425–1432. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mir RA, Jain SK, Lohani AK, Saraf AK (2018) Glacier recession and glacial lake outburst flood studies in Zanskar basin, western Himalaya. Journal of Hydrology 564: 376–396. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mool PK, Wangda D, Bajracharya SR, et al. (2001a) Inventory of Glaciers, Glacial Lakes and Glacial Lake Outburst Floods. Monitoring and Early Warning Systems in the Hindu Kush–Himalayan Region: Bhutan. ICIMOD. Google Scholar
  61. Mool PK, Wangda D, Bajracharya SR, et al. (2001b) Inventory of glaciers, glacial lakes and glacial lake outburst floods. Monitoring and early warning systems in the Hindu Kush–Himalayan Region: Nepal. ICIMOD.Google Scholar
  62. Nagai H, Ukita J, Narama C, et al. (2017) Evaluating the Scale and Potential of GLOF in the Bhutan Himalayas Using a Satellite–Based Integral Glacier–Glacial Lake Inventory. Geosciences 7(3): 77. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nagai H, Ukita J, Narama C, et al. (2017) Evaluating the Scale and Potential of GLOF in the Bhutan Himalayas Using a Satellite–Based Integral Glacier–Glacial Lake Inventory. Geosciences 7(3): 77. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ng F, Liu S, Mavlyudov B, et al. (2007) Climatic Control on the Peak Discharge of Glacier Outburst Floods. Geophysical Research Letters 34(21). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nie Y, Liu Q, Liu S (2013) Glacial Lake Expansion in the Central Himalayas by Landsat Images, 1990–2010. PLOS ONE 8(12): e83973. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nie Y, Sheng Y, Liu Q, et al. (2017) A regional–scale assessment of Himalayan glacial lake changes using satellite observations from 1990 to 2015. Remote Sensing of Environment 189: 1–3. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Paul F, Kääb A (2005) Perspectives on the Production of a Glacier Inventory from Multispectral Satellite Data in Arctic Canada: Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island. Annals of Glaciology 42: 59–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Paul F, Kääb A, Maisch M, et al. (2004) Rapid Disintegration of Alpine Glaciers Observed with Satellite Data. Geophysical Research Letters 31(21). Google Scholar
  69. Prakash C, Nagarajan R (2018) Glacial lake changes and outburst flood hazard in Chandra basin, North–Western Indian Himalaya. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk 9(1): 337–355. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Qiao L, Mayer C, Liu S (2015) Distribution and Interannual Variability of Supraglacial Lakes on Debris–Covered Glaciers in the Khan Tengri–Tumor Mountains, Central Asia. Environmental Research Letters 10(1): 014014. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Quincey DJ, Lucas RM, Richardson SD, et al. (2005) Optical Remote Sensing Techniques in High–Mountain Environments: Application to Glacial Hazards. Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment 29(4): 475–505. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Quincey DJ, Richardson SD, Luckman A, et al. (2007) Early Recognition of Glacial Lake Hazards in the Himalaya Using Remote Sensing Datasets. Global and Planetary Change 56(1): 137–152. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Reynolds JM (2000) On the formation of supraglacial lakes on debris–covered glaciers. IAHS publication 13(September): 153–164.Google Scholar
  74. Reynolds JM, Taylor PJ (2004) Reviewed Work(s): Inventory of Glaciers, Glacial Lakes and Glacial Lake Outburst Floods, Monitoring and Early Warning Systems in the Hindu Kush–Himalaya Region: Nepal by P. K. Mool, S. R. Bajracharya and S. P. Joshi; Inventory of Glaciers, Glacial Lakes and Glacial Lake Outburst Floods, Monitoring and Early Warning Systems in the Hindu Kush–Himalaya Region: Bhutan by P. K. Mool, D. Wangda, S. R. Bajracharya, K. Kunzang, D. R. Gurung and S. P. Joshi. Mountain Research and Development 24(3): 272–274. Google Scholar
  75. Richardson SD, Reynolds JM (2000) An Overview of Glacial Hazards in the Himalayas. Quaternary International 65–66(April): 31–47. Google Scholar
  76. Robson BA, Nuth C, Dahl SO, et al. (2015) Automated Classification of Debris–Covered Glaciers Combining Optical, SAR and Topographic Data in an Object–Based Environment. Remote Sensing of Environment 170(December): 372–387. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rounce DR, Watson CS, McKinney DC (2017) Identification of hazard and risk for glacial lakes in the Nepal Himalaya using satellite imagery from 2000–2015. Remote Sensing 9(7): 654. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sakai A, Chikita K, Yamada T (2000) Expansion of a Morainedammed Glacial Lake, Tsho Rolpa, in Rolwaling Himal, Nepal Himalaya. Limnology and Oceanography 45(6): 1401–1408. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Salerno F, Thakuri S, D’Agata C, et al. (2012) Glacial Lake Distribution in the Mount Everest Region: Uncertainty of Measurement and Conditions of Formation. Global and Planetary Change 92–93(July): 30–39. Google Scholar
  80. Sharma RK, Pradhan P, Sharma NP, et al. (2018) Remote sensing and in situ–based assessment of rapidly growing South Lhonak glacial lake in eastern Himalaya, India. Natural Hazards 93: 393–409. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sheng Y, Song C, Wang J, et al. (2016) Representative lake water extent mapping at continental scales using Multi–Temporal Landsat–8 Imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment, Landsat 8 Science Results, 185(November): 129–141. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shrestha AB, Eriksson M, Mool P, et al. (2010) Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Risk Assessment of Sun Koshi Basin, Nepal. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk 1(2): 157–169. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shrestha F, Gao X, Khanal NR, et al. (2017) Decadal Glacial Lake Changes in the Koshi Basin, Central Himalaya, from 1977 to 2010, Derived from Landsat Satellite Images. Journal of Mountain Science 14(10): 1969–1984. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Singh P, Singh VP (2001) Snow and Glacier Hydrology. Vol. 37 in the Water Science and Technology Library. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  85. Shukla A, Garg PK, Srivastava S (2018) Evolution of glacial and high–altitude lakes in the Sikkim, Eastern Himalaya over the past four decades (1975–2017). Frontiers in Environmental Science 6: 81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tobler WR (1970) A Computer Movie Simulating Urban Growth in the Detroit Region. Economic Geography 46(sup1): 234–240. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ukita J, Narama C, Tadono T (2011) Glacial lake inventory of Bhutan using ALOS data: methods and preliminary results. Annals of Glaciology 52(58): 65–71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Veettil BK, Bianchini N, de Andrade AM, et al. (2016) Glacier changes and related glacial lake expansion in the Bhutan Himalaya, 1990–2010. Regional environmental change 16(5): 1267–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Veh G, Korup O, Roessner S, et al. (2018) Detecting Himalayan glacial lake outburst floods from Landsat time series. Remote Sensing of Environment 207: 84–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Vuichard D, Zimmermann M (1987) The 1985 Catastrophic Drainage of a Moraine–Dammed Lake, Khumbu Himal, Nepal: Cause and Consequences. Mountain Research and Development 7(2): 91–110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wang J, Sheng Y, Tong TS (2014) Monitoring Decadal Lake Dynamics across the Yangtze Basin Downstream of Three Gorges Dam. Remote Sensing of Environment 152(September): 251–269. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wang W, Xiang Y, Gao Y, et al. (2014) Rapid Expansion of Glacial Lakes Caused by Climate and Glacier Retreat in the Central Himalayas. Hydrological Processes 29(6): 859–874. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wang W, Yang X, Yao T (2011) Evaluation of ASTER GDEM and SRTM and Their Suitability in Hydraulic Modelling of a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood in Southeast Tibet. Hydrological Processes 26(2): 213–225. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wang X, Ding Y, Liu S, et al. (2013). Changes of glacial lakes and implications in Tian Shan, central Asia, based on remote sensing data from 1990 to 2010. Environmental Research Letters 8(4): 044052. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Watson CS, Quincey DJ, Carrivick JL, et al. (2016) The Dynamics of Supraglacial Ponds in the Everest Region, Central Himalaya. Global and Planetary Change 142(July): 14–27. Google Scholar
  96. Worni R, Huggel C, Stoffel M (2013) Glacial Lakes in the Indian Himalayas — From an Area–Wide Glacial Lake Inventory to on–Site and Modeling Based Risk Assessment of Critical Glacial Lakes. Science of The Total Environment 468–469(December): S71–S84. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Worni R, Stoffel M, Huggel C, et al. (2012) Analysis and Dynamic Modeling of a Moraine Failure and Glacier Lake Outburst Flood at Ventisquero Negro, Patagonian Andes (Argentina). Journal of Hydrology 444–445(June): 134–145. Google Scholar
  98. Wang X, Liu SY, Guo WQ, et al. (2012) Using remote sensing data to quantify changes in glacial lakes in the Chinese Himalaya. Mountain Research and Development 32(2): 203–212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Yamada T (1998) Glacier lake and its outburst flood in the Nepal Himalaya. Data Center for Glacier Research. Japanese Society of Snow and ice. Monograph 1: 96.Google Scholar
  100. Yamada T, Sharma CK (1993) Glacier lakes and outburst floods in the Nepal Himalaya. IAHS Publications–Publications of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences 218: 319–330.Google Scholar
  101. Yao T, Thompson L, Yang W, et al. (2012) Different Glacier Status with Atmospheric Circulations in Tibetan Plateau and Surroundings. Nature Climate Change 2(9): 663–667. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Young OR, Steffen W (2009) The Earth System: Sustaining Planetary Life–Support Systems. In Principles of Ecosystem Stewardship, 295–315. Springer, New York, NY. Google Scholar
  103. Zhang MM, Chen F, Tian BS (2018) An Automated Method for Glacial Lake Mapping in High Mountain Asia Using Landsat 8 Imagery. Journal of Mountain Science 15(1): 13–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Water ResourcesIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations