Earthquake-triggered landslides affecting a UNESCO Natural Site: the 2017 Jiuzhaigou Earthquake in the World National Park, China
- 68 Downloads
On August 8th, 2017, an Ms 7.0 magnitude earthquake occurred in Jiuzhaigou County, northern Sichuan Province, China. The Jiuzhaigou Valley World National Park was the most affected area due to the epicentre being located in the scenic area of the park. Understanding the distribution characteristics of landslides triggered by earthquakes to help protect the natural heritage sites in Jiuzhaigou Valley remains a scientific challenge. In this study, a relatively complete inventory of the coseismic landslides triggered by the earthquake was compiled through the interpretation of high-resolution images combined with a field investigation. The results indicate that coseismic landslides not only are concentrated in Rize Gulley, Danzu Gully and Zezhawa Gully in the study area but also occur in the front part of Shuzheng Gully along the road network (from the entrance of Jiuzhaigou Valley to Heye Village). The landslides predominantly occur on the east- and southeast-facing slopes in the study area, which is a result of the integrated action of the valley direction and fault movement direction. The back-slope effect and the slope structure caused the difference in coseismic landslide distribution within the three gullies (Danzu Gully, Rize Gully, and Zezhawa Gully) near the inferred fault. In addition, the topographic position index was used to analyse the impact of microlandforms on earthquake-triggered landslides by considering the effect of the slope angle. The study results reveal a higher concentration of landslides in the slope position class of the middle slope (30°-50°) in Jiuzhaigou Valley. These findings can provide scientific guidance for the protection of natural heritage sites and post-disaster reconstruction in Jiuzhaigou Valley.
KeywordsEarthquake-triggered landslides Spatial distribution Landslide area ratio Slope position
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This study has been financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41520104002), Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, CAS (Grant No. QYZDY-SSWDQC006) and International partnership program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 131551KYSB20160002). The authors are also grateful for financial support from the Opening Fund of State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering (SKHL1609). Deep appreciation goes to Dr. Susmita and Dr. WU Sheng-nan for language proofreading of this manuscript.
- Bhakuni SS, Luirei K, Kothyari GC (2013) Neotectonic fault in the middle part of Lesser Himalaya, Arunachal Pradesh: a study based on structural and morphotectonic analyses. Himalayan Geology 34(1): 57–64.Google Scholar
- Bouchon M, Barker JS (1996) Seismic response of a hill: The example of Tarzana, California. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 86(1): 66–72.Google Scholar
- Cui P, Liu SQ, Tang BX, et al. (2005) Research and prevention of debris flow in national parks. Science Press, Bejing. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Cui P, Han YS, Dang C, et al. (2011) Formation and Treatment of Landslide Dams Emplaced During the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China. Natural and Artificial Rockslide Dams, Lecture Notes in Earth. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp 295–321. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04764-0_10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cigna F, Harrison A, Tapete D, et al. (2016). Understanding geohazards in the UNESCO WHL site of the Derwent Valley Mills (UK) using geological and remote sensing data. International Conference on Remote Sensing and Geoinformation of the Environment 96881V–2. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2240768 Google Scholar
- Cui Y, Chan D, Nouri A (2017b). Discontinuum modelling of solid deformation pore water diffusion coupling. International Journal of Geomechanics 17(8). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000903
- Dai LX, Xu Q, Fan XM, Chang M, et al. (2017) A preliminary study on spatial distribution patterns of landslides triggered by Jiuzhaigou earthquake in Sichuan on August 8th, 2017 and their susceptibility assessment. Journal of Engineering Geology 25: 1151–1164. https://doi.org/10.13544/j.cnki.jeg.2017.04.030 Google Scholar
- Deng GP (2011) Study of tourism geosciences landscape formation and protection of Jiuzhaigou world natural heritage site. PhD thesis. Chengdu University of Technology. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Delmonaco G, Brini M, Cesaro G (2017) Advanced monitoring Systems for Landslide Risk Reduction in THE'SIQ' of PETRA (jordan). 26th International CIPA Symposium 2017 XLII–2/W5: 163–169. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W5-163-2017.Google Scholar
- Du W, Wang G, Huang D (2018b) Evaluation of seismic slope displacements based on fully coupled sliding mass analysis and NGA–West2 database. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 144(8): 06018006. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001923 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ge WB, Li QY, Luo YN, et al. (2009) Comprehensive study on sustainable development of landscape water system and ecological geology environment in the core scenic spot of Jiuzhaigou and Huanglong. University of Electronic Science and Technology of China Press, Chengdu. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Fan X, Scaringi G, Xu Q, et al. (2018) Coseismic landslides triggered by the 8th August 2017 Ms 7.0 Jiuzhaigou earthquake (Sichuan, China): factors controlling their spatial distribution and implications for the seismogenic blind fault identification. Landslides 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-018-0960-x Google Scholar
- Huang RQ, Li WL (2008) Fault effect analysis of geo–hazards triggered by Wechuan Earthquake. Chinese Journal of Engineering Geology 17(1): 19–28 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Kargel JS, Leonard GJ, Shugar DH, et al. (2016) Geomorphic and geologic controls of geohazards induced by Nepal’s 2015 Gorkha earthquake. Science 351(6269). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac8353.
- Li G (2012) Failure machanism of stratiform rock slope under strong earthquake. Doctor. Chengdu University of Technology. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Ren JJ, Xu XW, Zhang SM, et al. (2017) Tectonic transformation at the eastern termination of the Eastern Kunlun fault zone and seismogenic mechanism of the 8 August 2017 Jiuzhaigou MS7.0 earthquake. Chinese JournalGeophysics 60(10): 4027–4045. (In Chinese) https://doi.org/10.6038/cjg20171029 Google Scholar
- Shi XS, Yin J (2017) Consolidation behavior for saturated sand–marine clay mixtures considering the intergranular structure evolution. Journal of Engineering Mechanics 144(2): 04017166. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0001391 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tang CA, Zuo YJ, Qin SF, et al. (2009) Spalling and slinging i pattern of shallow slope and dynamics explanation in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. In: Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Rock Mechanics and Engineering,China. pp 258–262.Google Scholar
- Tian Y, Xu C, Chen J, et al. (2016) Spatial distribution and susceptibility analyses of pre–earthquake and coseismic landslides related to the Ms 6.5 earthquake of 2014 in Ludian, Yunan, China. Geocarto International 32(9): 978–989. https://doi.org/10.1080/10106049.2016.1232316 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang Q (2010) Research on deformation characteristic and failure mechanism of bedding rock slope under earthquake. PhD thesis. Jilin University. (In Chinese)Google Scholar