Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 15, Issue 7, pp 1532–1545 | Cite as

Variable hydrological effects of herbs and shrubs in the arid northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

  • Ya-bin Liu
  • Ying Zhang
  • Jiang-tao Fu
  • Dong-mei Yu
  • Xia-song Hu
  • Xi-lai Li
  • Zhao-xin Qi
  • Shu-xia Li
Article
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

This study aims to assess the hydrological effects of four herbs and four shrubs planted in a selfestablished test area in Xining Basin of northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. The Rainfall-Intercepting Capability (RIC) of the herbs and shrubs was evaluated in rainfall interception experiment at the end of the third, fourth and fifth month of the growth period in 2007. The leaf transpiration rate and the effects of roots on promoting soil moisture evaporation in these plants were also assessed in transpiration experiment and root-soil composite system evaporation experiment in the five month’s growth period. It is found that the RIC of the four studied herbs follows the order of E. repens, E. dahuricus, A. trachycaulum and L. secalinus; the RIC of the four shrubs follows the order of A. canescens, Z. xanthoxylon, C. korshinskii and N. tangutorum. The RIC of all the herbs is related linearly to their mean height and canopy area (R2 ≥ 0.9160). The RIC of all the shrubs bears a logarithmic relationship with their mean height (R2 ≥ 0.9164), but a linear one with their canopy area (R2 ≥ 0.9356). Moreover, different species show different transpiration rates. Of the four herbs, E. repens has the highest transpiration rate of 1.07 mg/(m2·s), and of the four shrubs, A. canescens has the highest transpiration rate (0.74 mg/(m2·s)). The roots of all the herbs and shrubs can promote soil moisture evaporation. Of the four herbs, the evaporation rate of E. repens root-soil composite system is the highest (2.14%), and of the four shrubs, the root-soil composite system of A. canescens has the highest evaporation rate (1.41%). The evaporation rate of the root-soil composite system of E. dahuricus and Z. xanthoxylon bears a second-power linear relationship with evaporation time (R2 ≥ 0.9924). The moisture content of all the eight root-soil composite systems decreases exponentially with evaporation time (R2 ≥ 0.8434). The evaporation rate and moisture content of all the plants’ root-soil composite systems increases logarithmically (R2 ≥ 0.9606) and linearly (R2 ≥ 0.9777) with root volume density. The findings of this study indicate that among the four herbs and four shrubs, E. repens and A. canescens possess the most effective hydrological effects in reducing the soil erosion and shallow landslide in this region.

Keywords

Plant hydrological effects Rainfall interception capacity Root-soil composite system Transpiration rate Moisture evaporation rate Qinghai-Tibet Plateau 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The project has been financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41572306, 41162010), Natural Science Foundation of Qinghai Province (Grant No.2014-ZJ-906), and Hundred Talents Program in Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. Y110091025), Scientific and Technologic Support Plan of Qinghai Province (2015-SF-117), and Ministry of Education ‘Innovative Team Development Scheme’ (IRT_17R62). The authors are grateful for Gary Brierley from School of Environmental Science, the University of Auckland for guidance on how to reply to the reviewers’ comments. The authors also extend their thanks to colleagues at Qinghai University: Professors Duan Xiaoming, Sheng Haiyan, Associate Professors Mao Xiaoqing, Ni Sanchuan, Zhu Haili, Li Guorong, and graduate students Qiao Na, Yu Qinqin. We thank three anonymous reviewers for providing helpful comments on how to improve the manuscript.

References

  1. Asdak C (2006) Hydrological implication of Bamboo and mixed garden in the upper Citarum watershed. Indonesian Journalof Geography 38(1): 15–25. https://doi.org/10.22146/indo.j.geog,2231 Google Scholar
  2. Allen SJ (1990) Measurement and estimation of evaporation from soil under sparse barley crops in northern Syria. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 49(4): 291–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1923(90)90003-O CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. An SS, Huang YM (2006) Study on the ameliorate benefits of Caragana korshinskii shrubwood to soil properties in loess hilly area. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 42(1): 70–74. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. Anderson MC, Kustas WP, Norman JM (2003) Upscaling and downscaling-a regional view of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Agronomy Journal 95(6): 1408–1423. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2003.1408 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Briggs KM, Smethurst JA, Powrie W, et al. (2016) The influence of tree root water uptake on the long term hydrology of a clay fill railway embankment. Transportation Geotechnics 9: 31–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trgeo.2016.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baets SD, Poesen J, Knapen A, et al. (2007) Root characteristics of representative Mediterranean plant species and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff. Plant and Soil 294: 169–183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-007-9244-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bochet E, García-Fayos P (2004) Factors controlling vegetation establishment and water erosion on motorway slopes in Valencia, Spain. Restoration Ecology 12(2): 166–174. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1061-2971.2004.0325.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crockford RH, Richardson DP (2000) Partitioning of rainfall into throughfall, stemflow and interception: effect of forest type, ground cover and climate. Hydrological Processes 14: 2903–2920. https://doi.org/10.1002/10991085(200011/12)14:16/173.3.CO;2-Y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chau NL, Chu LM (2017) Fern cover and the importance of plant traits in reducing erosion on steep soil slopes. Catena 151: 98–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2016.12.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Domingo F, Sánchez G, Moro MJ, et al. (1998) Measurement and modelling of rainfall interception by three semi-arid canopies. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 91: 275–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(98)00068-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fu JT, Hu XS, Brierley G, et al. (2016) The influence of plant root system architectural properties upon the stability of loess hillslopes, Northeast Qinghai, China. Journal of Mountain Science 13(5): 785–801. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11629-014-3275-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fredlund DG, Rahardjo H (1993) Soil mechanics for unsaturated soils. New York: John Wily and Sons INC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fatahi B, Khabbaz H, Indraratna B (2009) Parametric studies on bioengineering effects of tree root-based suction on ground behaviour. Ecological Engineering 35(10): 1415–1426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.05.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fan CR, Li CY, Jia KL, et al. (2015) Grass canopy interception of Hulun watershed under different grazing systems. Acta Ecologica Sinica 35(14): 4716–4724. (In Chinese) https://doi.org/10.5846/stxb201311052674 Google Scholar
  15. Garcia-Estringana P, Alonso-Blázquez N, Marques MJ, et al. (2010) Direct and indirect effects of Mediterranean vegetation on runoff and soil loss. European Journal of Soil Science 61(2): 174–185. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2009.01221.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hu XS, Brierley G, Zhu HL, et al. (2013) An exploratory analysis of vegetation strategies to reduce shallow landslide activity on loess hillslopes, Northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Journal of Mountain Science 10(4): 668–686. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-013-2584-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Halim A, Normaniza O (2015) The effects of plant density of Melastoma malabathricum on the erosion rate of slope soil at different slope orientations. International Journal of Sediment Research 30(2): 131–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsrc.2015.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hu XS, Mao XQ, Zhu HL, et al. (2011) Vegetation slope protection in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Beijing: Geological Publishing House. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. Han X, Wang L, Wang YP (2014) Canopy interception of summer corn and its influencing factors under natural rainfall. Scientia Agricultura Scinica 47(8): 1541–1549. (In Chinese) https://doi.org/10.3864/j.issn.0578-1752.2014.08.010 Google Scholar
  20. Lim TT, Rahardjo H, Chang MF, et al. (1996) Effect of rainfall on matric suctions in a residual soil slope. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 33(4): 618–628. https://doi.org/10.1139/cgj-33-4-618 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu FJ (1990a) Changes of transpiration rates in poplar leaves in situ and in vitro. Plant Physiology Communications (1): 57–59. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. Liu FJ (1990b) A study on the measurement of transpiration rate in a poplar by means of quick-weighting method. Forest Research 3(2): 162–165. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Lin T, Tan SL, Ma SZ (2012) Soil mechanics. Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press Ltd. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Li XL, Tian JY, Zhang CE (1992) A study on effects of different types of forest on the Loess Plateau on physical properties of soil. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 28(2): 98–106. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. Jiao J, Su D, Han L, et al. (2016) A rainfall interception model for alfalfa canopy under simulated sprinkler irrigation. Water 8(12): 585–598. https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120585 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jackson RB, Sperry JS, Dawson TE (2000) Root water uptake and transport: using physiological processes in global predictions. Trends in Plant Science 5(11): 482–488. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1360-1385(00)01766-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Monson RK, Grant MC, Jaeger CH, et al. (1992) Morphological causes for the retention of precipitation in the crowns of alpine plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany 32(4): 319–327. https://doi.org/10.1016/0098-8472(92)90044-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Normaniza O, Faisal HA, Barakbah SS (2008) Engineering properties of Leucaena leucocephala for prevention of slope failure. Ecological Engineering 32(3): 215–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2007.11.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nahlawi H, Kodikara JK (2006) Laboratory experiments on desiccation cracking of thin soil layers. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 24(6): 1641–1664. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706-005-4894-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ng CWW, Woon KX, Leung AK, et al. (2013) Experimental investigation of induced suction distribution in a grasscovered soil. Ecological Engineering 52(2): 219–223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.11.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ng CWW, Kamchoom V, Leung AK (2016) Centrifuge modelling of the effects of root geometry on transpiration-induced suction and stability of vegetated slopes. Landslides 13(5): 925–938. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10346-015-0645-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Niu Q, Zhao K, Wang YH, et al. (2016) Examining the influence of vegetation on slope hydrology in Hong Kong using the capacitive resistivity technique. Journal of Applied Geophysics 129: 148–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2016.03.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Philip JR (1966) Plant water relations: some physical aspects. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 17(1): 245–268. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.17.060166.001333 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ren YS (2004) Prevention countermeasures to geological hazards in Xining. Management and Strategy of Qinghai Land and Resources (3): 31–33. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  35. Schwarz M, Cohen D, Or D (2011) Pullout tests of root analogs and natural root bundles in soil: experiments and modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research 116(F2): 167–177. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JF001753 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schwarz M, Phillips C, Marden M, et al. (2016) Modelling of root reinforcement and erosion control by ‘Veronese’ poplar on pastoral hill country in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 46(1): 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40490-016-0060-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stokes A, Atger C, Bengough AG, et al. (2009) Desirable plant root traits for protecting natural and engineered slopes against landslides. Plant and Soil 324(1): 1–30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-0159-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Saifuddin M, Osman N (2014) Hydrological and mechanical properties of plants to predict suitable legume species for reinforcing soil. Science Bulletin 59(35): 5123–5128. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11434-014-0391-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Seneviratne SI, Corti T, Davin EL, et al. (2010) Investigating soil moisture-climate interactions in a changing climate: a review. Earth Science Reviews 99(3): 125–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.02.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sun Y (2013) The development characteristics and stability analysis of Xining loess landslide—Take the Xiaoyoushan landslide as example. Chang’an University. Xi’an. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  41. Song J, Wang B, Zhang C, et al. (2010) Analysis on the effect of the Yellow River soil and water conservation ecological project in Xining. Yellow River 32(9): 83–85. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  42. Shi H, Chen FQ, Liu SR (2005) Macropores properties of forest soil and its influence on water effluent in the upper reaches of Minjiang River. Acta Ecologica Sinica 25(3): 507–512. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  43. Su YZ, Zhao HL (2003) Soil properties and plant species in an age sequence of Caragana microphylla plantations in the Horqin Sandy Land, north China. Ecological Engineering 20(3): 223–235. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(03)00042-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sellers PJ, Randall DA, Collatz GJ, et al. (1996) A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMS. Part I: model formulation. Journal of Climate 9(4): 706–737. https://doi.org/10.1175/15200442(1996)009<0676:ARLSPF>2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
  45. Tang CS, Shi B, Gu K (2011) Experimental investigation on evaporation process of water in soil during drying. Journal of Engineering Geology 19(6): 875–881. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  46. Vergani C, Schwarz M, Soldati M, et al. (2016) Root reinforcement dynamics in subalpine spruce forests following timber harvest: a case study in Canton Schwyz, Switzerland. Catena 143: 275–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2016.03.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wu TH, Mckinnell WP, Swanston DN (1979) Strength of tree roots and landslides on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 16(1): 19–33. https://doi.org/10.1139/t79-003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Waldron LJ, Dakessian S (1981) Soil reinforcement by roots: calculation of increased soil shear resistance from root properties. Soil Science 132(6): 427–435. https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-198112000-00007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang ZK, Wu PT, Zhao XN, et al. (2013) Mathematical simulation of soil evaporation from wheat/maize intercropping field. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 29(21): 72–81. (In Chinese) https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1002-6819.2013.21.010 Google Scholar
  50. Wang YH, Zhang X (2011) Analysis of the characteristic and change trend of precipitation in Xi’ning city. Research of Soil and Water Conservation 18(5): 156–160. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  51. Wohlfahrt G, Bianchi K, Cernusca A (2006) Leaf and stem maximum water storage capacity of herbaceous plants in a mountain meadow. Journal of Hydrology 319(1): 383–390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.06.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yan SC, Zhang FC, Wu Y, et al. (2017) Estimation of drip irrigated summer maize soil water content and evapotranspiration based on SIMDualKc model. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 33(16): 152–160. (In Chinese) https://doi.org/10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2017.16.020 Google Scholar
  53. Yang YY, Guo AH, An SQ, et al. (2004) Research on plant-root water uptake models in soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Meteorological Science and Technology 32(5): 316–321. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  54. Yang DW, Cong ZT, Shang SH, et al. (2016) Research advances from soil water dynamics to ecohydrology. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 47(3): 390–397. (In Chinese) https://doi.org/10.13243/j.cnki.slxb.20151288 Google Scholar
  55. Zhang QC, Liu BY, Zhai G (2002) Review on relationship between vegetation and soil and water loss. Research of Soil and Water Conservation 9(4): 96–101. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  56. Zhou PD, Zhang JY (2003) The engineering technology for slope protection by vegetation. Beijing: China Communications Press. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  57. Zhang YF, Wang XP, Hu R, et al. (2015a) Rainfall partitioning into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss by two xerophytic shrubs within a rain-fed re-vegetated desert ecosystem, northwestern China. Journal of Hydrology 527: 1084–1095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.05.060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhang ZS, Li XR, Dong XJ, et al. (2009) Rainfall interception by sand-stabilizing shrubs related to crown structure. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions 1(2): 107–119. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  59. Zhou XY, Wang AZ, Guan DX, et al. (2014) Research of soil evaporation of Horqin grassland. Chinese Journal of Grassland 36(1): 90–97. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  60. Zhang C, Yan HF, Oue H, et al. (2015b) Parameterization of surface soil available moisture and simulation of soil evaporation beneath canopy. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 31(2): 102–107. (In Chinese) https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1002-6819.2015.02.015 Google Scholar
  61. Zhu HL, Hu XS, Mao XQ, et al. (2008) Study on mechanical characteristics of shrub roots for slope protection in loess area of Tibetan Plateau. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering 27(Supp 2): 3345–3452. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  62. Zhuo L, Su DR, Liu ZX, et al. (2009) Capability of canopy interception of turfgrass (Zoysia sinica Hance). Acta Eco logica Sinica 29(2): 669–675. (In Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resources, Qinghai Institute of Salt LakesChinese Academy of SciencesXiningChina
  2. 2.Qinghai Provincial Key Laboratory of Geology and Environment of Salt LakesXiningChina
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Department of Geological EngineeringQinghai UniversityXiningChina
  5. 5.College of Agriculture and Animal HusbandryQinghai UniversityXiningChina

Personalised recommendations