Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 9, Issue 5, pp 656–664 | Cite as

Crown fuel characteristics and carbon emission from Japanese red pine stands burned by crown fire in Mt. Palgong, South Korea

  • Byungdoo Lee
  • Myoung Soo Won
  • Yohan LeeEmail author
  • Myung Bo Lee


Carbon emissions from forest fires are considered an important factor of ecosystem carbon balance and global climate change. Carbon emissions from Japanese red pine stands (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) burned by crown fire were estimated at Mt. Palgong in Daegu Metropolitan City, and crown fuel characteristics, including crown bulk density, crown base height, and fuel moisture content of Japanese red pine, were analyzed. Total biomass combusted was calculated by subtracting the biomass of burned stands from that of unburned stands exhibiting similar stand structures and site environments. Ten trees in the unburned area and five trees in the burned area were cut by using direct harvesting techniques to estimate crown layer biomass. All biomass sampled was oven-dried and weighed. The dry weight ratios of stems, branches, and needles were 70%, 21%, and 9%, respectively. The available fuel load susceptible to combustion during the crown fire spread was equivalent to 55% of the crown layer biomass. The crown bulk density was 0.24 kg/m3 on average. The estimated amount of CO2 was 23,454 kg CO2/ha for the crown layer. These results will be useful for calculating the amount of CO2 emitted from forest fires and for developing a forest carbon model in P. densiflora forests.


Biomass burning Crown fire Fuel characteristics Bulk density Pinus densiflora 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amiro BD, Barr AG, Black TA, Iwashita H, Kljun N, JMcCaughey JH, Morgenstern K, Murayama S, Nesic Z, Orchansky AL, Saigusa N (2005) Carbon, energy and water fluxes at mature and disturbed forest sites, Saskatchewan, Canada. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 136(3): 237–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beukema SJ, Greenough DC, Robinson CE, Kurtz WA, Reinhardt ED, Crookston NL, Brown JK, Hardy CC, Stage AR (1997) An introduction to the fire and fuels extension to FVS. In: Teck R, Mouer M, Adams J, (eds), Proceedings of the Forest Vegetation Simulator Conference, 3–7 February 1997; Fort Collins, Colorado. General Technical Report. INT-373. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. pp 191–195.Google Scholar
  3. Brown JK, Bradshaw LS (1994) Comparisons of particulate emissions and smoke impacts from presettlement, full suppression and Prescribed Natural Fire periods in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness. International Journal of Wildland Fire 4(3): 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Call PT, Albini FA (1997) Aerial and surface fuel consumption in crown fires International Journal of Wildland Fire 7(3): 259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chrosciewicz Z (1986) Foliar moisture content variations in four coniferous tree species of central Alberta. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 16: 157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Houth WA (1973) Fuel and weather influence wildfires in sand pine forests. SE-RP-106. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeast Research Station. p 9.Google Scholar
  7. Kim CS, Jeong JE, Kim RH, Son YM, Lee KH, Kim JS, Park IH (2010) Allometric equations and biomass expansion factors of Japanese red pine on the local level. Landscape and Ecological Engineering (on-line press).Google Scholar
  8. Kim JH, Yoon SM (1972) Studies on the Productivity and the Productive Structure of the Forests — 2. Comparison between the Productivity of Pinus densiflora and of Quercus mongolica Stands located near Choon-Chun City. Journal of Plant Biology 15(3): 1–8. (In Korean)Google Scholar
  9. Kozlowski TT, Clausen JJ (1966) Shoot growth characteristics of heterophyllous woody plants. Canadian Journal of Botany 44: 827–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Korea Forest Service (2006) Statistical year book of forestry. Korea Forest Service, Daejeon. pp 474. (In Korean)Google Scholar
  11. Lee BD, Kim HH, Jang KM, Jung JS, Lee MB, Lee SY (2006) Estimation of Biomass of Pinus densiflora Stands Burnt Out by the 2005 Yangyang Forest Fire. Korean Journal of Environmental Ecology 20(2): 267–273. (In Korean)Google Scholar
  12. Lee KH, Son YM, Rho DK, Kwon SD (2002) Stem weight equations for six major tree species in Korea. Journal of Korean Forest Society 91(2): 206–212. (In Korean)Google Scholar
  13. Little CHA, (1970) Derivation of the springtime starch increase in balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Canadian Journal of Botany 48(11): 1995–1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mitsopoulos ID, Dimitrakopoulos AP (2007) Allometric equations for crown fuel biomass of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis MIll.) in Greece. International Journal of Wildland Fire 16: 642–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moreno JM, Oechel WC (1989) A simple method for estimating fire intensity after a burn in California chaparral. Acta Oecol-Oecol Plantarum 10: 57–68.Google Scholar
  16. Park IH, Kim JS (1989) Biomass regressions of Pinus densiflora natural forests of four local forms in Korea. Journal of Korean Forest Society 78(3): 323–330. (In Korean)Google Scholar
  17. Park IH, Lee SM (1990) Biomass and net production of Pinus densiflora natural forests of four local forms in Korea. Journal of Korean Forest Society 79(2): 196–204. (In Korean)Google Scholar
  18. Reinhardt ED, Keane RE, Scott JH, Brown JK (2000) Quantification of canopy fuels in conifer forests: Assessing crown fuel characteristics using destructive and nondestructive methods. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT.Google Scholar
  19. Sando RW, Wick CH (1972) A method of evaluating crown fuels in forest stands. Research Paper RP-NC-84, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experimental Station, St. Paul. pp 10.Google Scholar
  20. Scholl ER, Waldrop TA (1999) Photos for estimation fuel loadings before and after prescribed burning in the upper coastal plain of the southeast. US Forest Service. Southern Research Station. General Technical Report SRS-26, Asheville, NC. pp 29.Google Scholar
  21. Scott JH (1998) Sensitivity analysis of a method for assessing crown fire hazard in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA. In: Viegas D X (ed.), III International conference on forest fire research; 14th conference on fire and forest meteorology. pp 16–20.Google Scholar
  22. Scott JH, Reinhardt ED (2001) Assessing crown fire potential by linking models of surface and crown fire behavior. Research Paper. RMRS-RP-29, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. pp 59.Google Scholar
  23. Shin MY, Jung DJ, Lee TH (1999) Study on developing crown shape equation of major tree species in Korea. Journal of Korean Forest Society 2(1): 3–11. (In Korean)Google Scholar
  24. Shinozaki K, Yoda K, Hozumi K, Kira T (1964) A quantitative analysis of plant form-the pipe model theory. I. Basic analysis. Japanese Journal of Ecology 14: 97–105.Google Scholar
  25. Stocks BJ (1987) Fire behavior in immature jack pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17(1): 80–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. UNFCCC. 2007. Synthesis and Assessment Report. Preliminary findings on individual national GHG Inventories. Available online: [Accessed on 2011-7-15].
  27. Urbanski SP, Hao WM, Baker SP (2009) Chemical composition of wildland fire emissions. Bytnerowicz A, Arbaugh M, Andersen C, Riebau A (eds.), 79–107 in Wildland Fires and Air Pollution. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  28. Van Wagner CE (1993) Prediction of crown fire behavior in two stands of jack pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23: 442–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Byungdoo Lee
    • 1
  • Myoung Soo Won
    • 1
  • Yohan Lee
    • 2
    Email author
  • Myung Bo Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Forest Disaster ManagementKorea Forest Research InstituteSeoulKorea
  2. 2.College of ForestryOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

Personalised recommendations