Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 9, Issue 5, pp 589–600 | Cite as

Underutilized plant species in Far West Nepal

  • Ripu M. KunwarEmail author
  • Laxmi Mahat
  • Lila N. Sharma
  • Keshab P. Shrestha
  • Hiroo Kominee
  • Rainer W. Bussmann


Underutilized plant species help to alleviate common food insufficiencies by providing alternative food supply. They also complement primary health care, furnishing raw materials where the cultivation of staple cereal crops is least feasible and health care is pursued indigenously. Research and promotion of extraction, utilization, and conservation of underutilized species lead to exploration of new staple crops and motivate people to consume in a sustainable manner. The present study describes the current status, uses, and management of underutilized plant species in Far West Nepal. The relative importance of 49 underutilized plant species was computed employing a Relative Importance (RI) technique. The use-values assigned to the species fall into six use-categories: beverage, fodder, food & edible, medicinal, vegetable and veterinary. A total of 22 species appeared in multiple use-categories, while the rest were characterized by a single use-category. Based on relative importance and frequency, Ficus semicordata, Debregesia longifolia, Girardinea diversifolia, Hydrocotyle nepalensis, Garuga pinnata, Aloe vera and Pyrus pashia offer the most potential for future. Underutilized plants proved important to folk medicine and food. These species persist because they remain useful to local people as means of subsistence, production, and primary health care. The findings are important so far as they point up the role of underutilized plants in national food security policy and health care, spelling out their potentialities and cross cutting relationships.


Underutilized plants Relative importance (RIEthnoveterinary use Conservation Nepal 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acharya KP, Acharya R (2010) Eating from the Wild: Indigenous Knowledge on Wild Edible Plants in Rupandehi District, Nepal. International Journal of Social Forestry 3(1): 24–48.Google Scholar
  2. Acharya BK and HP Anderson. 2009. Cultivation and Use of Ricebean. A Case Study of Dang District, Nepal. Masters’ thesis in Resources and Human Adaptation. Institute for Geography, University of Bergen, Norway.Google Scholar
  3. Akhtar F (2001) Uncultivated Food in Context of Poor People’s Livelihood: A Nayakrishi Experience. In: Johnston MM (ed.), The Proceedings of Regional Workshop on Uncultivated Foods and Biodiversity, 24–26 September 2001, USC Canada-Nepal, Kathmandu, pp. 8–17.Google Scholar
  4. Albuquerque UP, Lucena RFP, Monteiro JM, et al. (2006) Evaluating Two Quantitative Ethnobotanical Techniques. Journal of Ethnobotany Research & Applications 4: 51–60.Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous (2008) District profile. Mega Research Center and Publication, Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  6. Aryal KP, Berg A, Ogle B (2009) Uncultivated Plants and Livelihood Support: A Case Study from Chepang People of Nepal. Journal of Ethnobotany Research & Applications 7: 409–422.Google Scholar
  7. Asfaw Z, Tadesse M (2001) Prospects for Sustainable Use and Development of Wild Food Plants in Ethiopia. Economic Botany 55(1): 47–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bastakoti R, Sharma LN (2008) Chepang: Food Culture and Agro Biodiversity. UNDP/GEF, RIMS Nepal and Nepal Chepang Union, p 84.Google Scholar
  9. Bennett BC, Prance GT (2000) Introduced Plants in the Indigenous Pharmacopeia of Northern South América. Economic Botany 54: 90–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhattarai S, Chaudhary RP, Taylor RSL (2009) Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by People of Nawalparasi District, Central Nepal. Our Nature 7: 82–99.Google Scholar
  11. Bhattarai S, Chaudhary RP (2009) Wild Edible Plants Used by the People of Manang District, Central Nepal. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 48: 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhattarai S, Pant B, Upadhyaya CP (2011) Dependency of Tharu Communities on Wild Plants: A Case Study of Shankarpur, Kanchanpur District, Nepal. Banko Janakari 21: 35–40.Google Scholar
  13. Burlakoti C, Kunwar RM (2008) Folk Herbal Remedies of Mahakali Watershed Area, Nepal. In: Jha PK, Karmacharya SB, Chettri MK, et al. (eds.), Medicinal Plants in Nepal: An Anthology of Contemporary Research. Ecological Society of Nepal, Kathmandu, pp 187–193.Google Scholar
  14. CBD (1992) Convention on Biological Diversity, Rio de Janeiro. Available online: (Accessed on 19 January 2012)
  15. CGIAR (2004) Innovation in Agricultural Research. Annual Report, Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Secretariat, Washington DC, United Nations.Google Scholar
  16. Chaudhary RP (1998) Biodiversity in Nepal: Status and Conservation. Tecpress Books, Bangkok, Thailand.Google Scholar
  17. Chopra RN, Chopra IC, Handa KL, et al. (1958) Indigenous Drugs of India. UN Dhar and Sons Publishing, Calcutta, India, pp 436–443.Google Scholar
  18. Cunningham AB (2001) Applied Ethnobotany, People, Wild Plant Use and Conservation. Earthscan Publishing Limited, London, p 300.Google Scholar
  19. Darwish FMM (2002) Phytochemical study of Ficus benghalensis L. Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy 40(2): 249–258.Google Scholar
  20. Devkota R, Karmacharya SB (2003) Documentation in Indigenous Knowledge of Medicinal Plants in Gwallek VDC, Baitadi, Nepal. Botanica Orientalis 3: 135–143.Google Scholar
  21. Dhar U, Rawal RS, Upreti J (2000) Setting Priorities for Conservation of Medicinal Plants: A Case Study in Indian Himalaya. Biological Conservation 95: 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Quisumbing E (1951) Medicinal Plants of the Philippines. Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bureau of Printing, Manila.Google Scholar
  23. Etkin NL, Ross PJ (1982) Food as Medicine and Medicine as Food: An Adaptive Framework for the Interpretation of Plant Utilization among the Hausa of Northern Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine 16: 1559–1573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Etkin NL (2002) Local Knowledge of Biotic Diversity and its Conservation in Rural Hausaland, Northern Nigeria. Economic Botany 56(1): 73–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Evans J (1992) Plantation Forestry in the Tropics, 2nd ed. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  26. Eze SC, Asiegbu JE, Mbah BN, et al. (2006) Biocontrol of storage insect and use as fungicide. Agro-Science 5(1): 8–12.Google Scholar
  27. FAO (1996a) Report on the State of the World’s Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Rome, Italy, p 511.Google Scholar
  28. FAO (1996b) Global Plan of Action for Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Section 12. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  29. Fowler J, Cohen L, Jarvis P (1998) Practical Statistics for Field Biologists. John Willey and Sons, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  30. Gadgil M, Birkes F, Folkes C (1993) Indigenous Knowledge of Biodiversity Conservation. Ambio 22: 151–160.Google Scholar
  31. Geetha BS, Mathew BC, Augusti KT (1994) Hypoglycemic Effects of Leucodelphinidin Derivative Isolated from Ficus benghalensis Linn. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 38: 220–222.Google Scholar
  32. Gessler M, Hodel U, Eyzaguirre PB (1998) Home Gardens and Agro biodiversity: Current State of Knowledge with Reference to Relevant Literature. IPGRI Home Gardens Project Document, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  33. Ghannam N, Kingston M, Al-Meshaal IA, et al. (1986) The Antidiabetic Activity of Aloes: Preliminary Clinical and Experimental Observations. Hormone Research 24: 288–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Giuliani A (2007) Developing Markets for Agro biodiversity: Securing Livelihoods in Dry land Areas. Earthscan Publications, London, UK.Google Scholar
  35. GoN (1992) Wild Edible Plants of Nepal. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal, p 285.Google Scholar
  36. GoN (2007) Medicinal Plants of Nepal. Bulletin of the Department of Plant Resources No. 28. Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal, p 402.Google Scholar
  37. Govaerts R (2001) How many species of seed plants are there? Taxon 50(4): 1085–1090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gruere G, Giuliani A, Smale M (2006) Marketing Underutilized Plant Species for Benefit of Poor. EPT discussion paper, International Food Policy Research Institute. CGIAR.Google Scholar
  39. Gurung LJ, Rajbhandary S, Ranjitkar S (2008) Indigenous Knowledge on Medicinal Plants in Midhills of Nepal: A Case Study of Sikles of Kaski District, Nepal. In: Jha PK, Karmacharya SB, Chettri MK, et al. (eds.), Medicinal Plants in Nepal: An Anthology of Contemporary Research. Ecological Society of Nepal, Kathmandu, p 152–163.Google Scholar
  40. Hamilton AC (2004) Medicinal Plants, Conservation and Livelihoods. Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 1477–1517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hoft M, Barik SK, Lykke AM (1999) Quantitative Ethnobotany: Applications of Multivariate and Statistical Analyses in Ethnobotany. People and Plants Paper 6, UNESCO, Paris.Google Scholar
  42. Holland SM (2006) Cluster Analysis. Department of Geology, University of Georgia, Athens.Google Scholar
  43. IPGRI (2002) Neglected and Underutilized Plant Species: Strategic Action Plan of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, p. 27.Google Scholar
  44. Jaenicke H, Hoschle-Zeledon I (eds.) (2006) Strategic Framework for Underutilized Plant Species Research and Development: With Reference to Asia and the Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa. International Center for Underutilized Crops, Sri lanka and Global Facilitation Unit for Underutilized Plants, Rome, Italy, p. 33.Google Scholar
  45. Jain A, Katewa SS, Choudhary BL, et al. (2004) Folk Herbal Medicines Used in Birth Control and Sexual Diseases by Tribals of Southern Rajasthan, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 90: 171–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jha PK, Shrestha KK, Upadhyay MP, et al. (1996) Plant Genetic Resources of Nepal: A Guide for Plant Breeders of Agriculture, Horticulture and Forestry Crops. Euphytica 87(3): 189–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johns T, Eyzaguirre PB (2002) Nutrition and the Environment. In Nutrition: A foundation for Development. Geneva: ACC/SCN 20: 269–285.Google Scholar
  48. Joshi AR, Joshi K (2000) Indigenous Knowledge and Uses of Medicinal Plants by Local Communities of Kaligandaki Watershed Area, Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 73: 175–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Joshi N, Kehlenbeck K, Maass BL (2007) Traditional, Neglected Vegetables of Nepal: Their Sustainable Utilization for Meeting Human Needs. Conference on International Agriculture Research for Development, 9–11 October 2007, University of Gottingen, Germany.Google Scholar
  50. Joshi N (2008) Ethnomedicinal Uses of Plants in Western Terai of Nepal: A Case Study from Dekhatbhuli of Kanchanpur, Nepal. In: Jha PK, Karmacharya SB, Chettri MK, et al. (eds.), Medicinal Plants in Nepal: An Anthology of Contemporary Research. Ecological Society of Nepal, Kathmandu, pp 164–176.Google Scholar
  51. Kala CP, Farooquee M, Dhar U (2004) Prioritization of Medicinal Plants on Basis of Available Knowledge, Existing Practice and Use Value Status in Uttaranchal, India. Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 453–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Katewa SS, Jain A (2003) Aromatic and Medicinal Grasses of Aravalli Hills of Rajasthan. In: Singh VK, Govil JN, Hashmi S, et al. (eds.), Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants Series, Volume 7: Ethnomedicine and Pharmacognosy II., Sci Tech Publishing, Herndon, Virginia, USA. pp 57–68.Google Scholar
  53. Khadka BB (2000) Coarse Grain and Pulses in Nepal: Roles and Prospects. No. 6, UN/ESCAP CGPRT Centre and FAO.Google Scholar
  54. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (1981) Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. I, International Book Distributors, India, p. 838.Google Scholar
  55. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (1987) Ficus hispida Linn, In: Blatter E, Caius JF, Mhaskar KS, (eds.), Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol 3. International Book Distributors. India.Google Scholar
  56. Kunwar RM (2002) Some Threatened Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Status, Trade and Management Practice in Dolpa, Midwestern, Nepal. Journal of Natural History Museum 21: 173–186.Google Scholar
  57. Kunwar RM, Adhikari N (2005) Ethnomedicine of Dolpa District, Nepal: The Plants, Their Vernacular Names and Uses. Lyonia 8(1): 43–49.Google Scholar
  58. Kunwar RM, Bussmann RW (2006) Ficus (Fig) species in Nepal: A Review of Diversity and Indigenous Uses. Lyonia 11(1): 85–97.Google Scholar
  59. Kunwar RM, Bussmann RW (2008) Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 4: 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kunwar RM, Uprety Y, Burlakoti C, et al. (2009) Indigenous Use and Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants in Far West Nepal. Journal of Ethnobotany Research & Applications 7: 5–28.Google Scholar
  61. Kunwar RM, Shrestha KP, Bussmann RW (2010a) Traditional Herbal Medicine in Far West Nepal: A Pharmacological Appraisal. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 6: 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kunwar RM, Burlakoti C, Chowdhary CL, et al. (2010b) Medicinal Plants in West Nepal: Indigenous Uses and Pharmacological Validity. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology, Global Science Books, Ltd., Isleworth, UK. pp4, 28–42.Google Scholar
  63. Lasisi AO, Ajuwon AJ (2002) Beliefs and perceptions of Ear, Nose and throat-related conditions among residents of a traditional community in Ibadan, Nigeria. African Journal of Medical Sciences 31(1): 45–48.Google Scholar
  64. Lust J (1986) The Herb Book. 16th edition, Bantam Publishing. ISBN 0-553-17273-5. London.Google Scholar
  65. Maikhuri RK, Nautiyal S, Rao KS, et al. (2000) Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants and wild edibles among three tribal sub-communities of the Central Himalayas, India. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 8(2): 7–13.Google Scholar
  66. Malla L (1993) The Natural Dyes of Nepal. Research Center for Applied Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Nepal, p. 142.Google Scholar
  67. Manandhar NP (1989) Useful Wild Plants of Nepal. Nepal Research Center Publication 14, Stuttgart, Germany.Google Scholar
  68. Manandhar NP (1995a) Ethnobotanical Notes on Unexploited Wild Food Plants of Nepal. Ethnobotany 7: 95–101.Google Scholar
  69. Manandhar NP (1995b) A Survey of Medicinal Plants of Jajarkot District, Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 48:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Marr KL, Xia YM, Bhattarai NK (2007) Allozymic, morphological, phonological, linguistic, plant use and nutritional data of Benincapsa hispida (Cucurbitaceae). Economic Botany 61(1): 44–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Martin GJ (2004) Ethnobotany: A Method Manual. Earthscan Publications, London.Google Scholar
  72. Moundipa PF, Flore KGM, Bilong CFB, (2005) In vitro amoebicidal activity of some medicinal plants of Bamun region (Cameroon). African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 2(2): 113–121.Google Scholar
  73. Nadkarni KM (1996) Ficus hispida and Ficus daemona, In: Nadkarni KM, Nadkarni AK (eds.), Indian Materia Medica, 2nd ed., Vol 1. Popular Prakashan, Mumbai, India.Google Scholar
  74. Obuekwe IF, Obuekwe IC (2002) Indigenous methods used for management of Diarrhea in an urban community in Edo State, Nigeria. Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research 1(1): 44–45.Google Scholar
  75. Osifo NG (1992) A System of Traditional Health Care. Vol. 2, Neras Publishers Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  76. Padulosi S, Hodgkin T, Williams JT, et al. (2002) Under-Utilized Crops: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities in the 21st century. In: Engels JMM (ed.), Managing Plant Genetic Resources, London and Rome: CABI-IPGRI.Google Scholar
  77. Padulosi S, Hoeschle-Zeledon I (2004) Underutilized Plant Species, What Are They? Leisa Magazine 20(1):5–6.Google Scholar
  78. Pant SR, Panta IR (2004) Indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants in Bhagawati VDC, Darchula, Nepal. Botanica Orientalis 4: 79–81.Google Scholar
  79. Pastor S, Fuentealba B, Ruiz M (2006) Analysis of National and International Policies that Enable or Inhibit the Wider Use of Underutilized Plant Species for Food and Agriculture in Peru. Global Facilitation Unit for Underutilized Species, Italy.Google Scholar
  80. Phillips OL (1996) Some Quantitative Methods for Analyzing Ethnobotanical Knowledge. In: Alexiades M, Sheldon JW (eds.), Selected Guidelines for Ethnobotanical Research: A field Manual, New York Botanical Garden Press, pp 171–197.Google Scholar
  81. Pokharel RK (1998) Indigenous Technical Knowledge of People on Fodder Tree Management. Banko Janakari 8(2): 10–13.Google Scholar
  82. Potterton D (ed.) (1983) Culpeppers’ Color Herbal. W. Foulsham & Co. Limited. UK. ISBN 0-572-01152-0.Google Scholar
  83. Poudel KC (2003) Domesticating Lapsi, Choerospondias axillaris for Fruit Production in the Middle Mountain Agroforestry Systems in Nepal. Himalayan Journal of Sciences 1: 55–58.Google Scholar
  84. Prescott-Allen R, Prescott-Allen C (1990) How many plants feed the world? Conservation Biology 4: 365–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Quinlan MB, Quinlan RJ, Nolan JM (2002) Ethnophysiology and herbal treatments of intestinal worms in Dominica, West Indies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 80: 75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. R Development Core Team (2010) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0,
  87. Regmi PP (1994) Wild and Unutilized Food Plants in Nepal. A paper presented on National Workshop on Plant Genetic Resources Conservation, Use and Management. Kathmandu, Nepal.Google Scholar
  88. Regmi PP (2006) Analysis of Existing Policies and Legislation that Enable or Inhibit the Wider Use of Underutilized Species for Food and Agriculture in Nepal. ABTRACO Nepal and Global Facilitation Unit for Underutilized Plants, Italy.Google Scholar
  89. Rehm S, Espig G (1991) The Cultivated Plants of the Tropics. Verlag Josesf Margraf and CTA. Weikersheim, Germany, p 522.Google Scholar
  90. Reyes-García V, Huanca T, Vadez V, et al. (2006) Cultural, practical, and economic value of wild plants: a quantitative study in the Bolivian Amazon. Economic Botany 60: 62–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rokaya MB, Munzbergova Z, Timsina B (2010) Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants from humla district of Western Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 130: 485–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Salick J, Byg A, Amend A, et al. (2006) Tibetan medicine plurality. Economic Botany 60: 227–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Santayana Pardo-de M, Tardio J, Morales RN (2005) The gathering and consumption of wild edible plants in the Capoo (Cantabria, Spain). International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 56: 529–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sattaur O (1989) The shrinking gene pool. New Scientist 1675: 37–41.Google Scholar
  95. Shrestha B (1995) Nepalese dye yielding plants for vegetable dyeing. Green Energy 1(1): 24–31.Google Scholar
  96. Shrestha GL, Bhandari R, Shrestha B (1995) Oil Yielding Plants of Nepal. Green Energy Mission Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal, p 102.Google Scholar
  97. Shrestha K (1987) Report on Edible Wild Plants from Pokhara and Northern Region of Kathmandu, Nepal. Journal of Natural History Museum 11: 85–98.Google Scholar
  98. Shrestha PM, Dhillion SS (2003) Medicinal plant diversity and use in the highlands of Dolakha District, Nepal. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 86: 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Simpson BB, Ogorzaly MC (1995) Economic Botany: Plants in Our Worlds. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  100. Sofowora LA (1993) Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa, Spectrum Books Ltd, Ibadan, pp 55–71.Google Scholar
  101. Stainton A, Polunin O (1984) Flowers of the Himalaya. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, India, p 580.Google Scholar
  102. Stainton A (1988) Flowers of the Himalaya, A Supplement. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, India, p 86.Google Scholar
  103. Stallknecht GF, Schulz-Schaeffer JR (1993) Amaranth Rediscovered. In: Janick J, Simon JE (eds.), New Crops, Wiley, New York, pp 211–218.Google Scholar
  104. Sthapit B, Subedi A, Rijal D, et al. (2003) Strengthening Community-based On-farm Conservation of Agricultural Biodiversity Experiences from Nepal. In: Conservation and Sustainable Use of Agricultural Biodiversity: A Sourcebook. CIP-UPWARD, GTZ GmbH, IDRC, IPGRI and SEARICE.Google Scholar
  105. Subedi BP (2006) Linking Plant Based Enterprises to Conservation in Nepal. Himalaya, Adroit Publisher, Ansari Road, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  106. Sundriyal M, Sundriyal RC (2001) Wild edible plants of the Sikkim Himalaya: nutritive values. Economic Botany 55(3): 313–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sundriyal M, Sundriyal RC (2003) Wild edible plants in the Sikkim Himalaya: nutritive values of selected species. Economic Botany 58(2): 286–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. UNWFP (2006) Food Security Bulletin, 15 October 2006. UNWFP, Lalitpur, Nepal.Google Scholar
  109. Walters M, Hamilton A (1993) The Vital Wealth of Plants. Gland, Switzerland: WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature.Google Scholar
  110. Watanabe T, Rajbhandari KR, Malla KJ, et al. (2005) A Hand Book of Medicinal Plants of Nepal. Ayur Seed Life Environmental Institute (Ayurseed L.E.I.), Japan, p. 262.Google Scholar
  111. Wilkes HG (1981) New or Potential Crop or What to Anticipate for the Future. Paper presented at annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, January 1981, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  112. Wilson EO (1992) The Diversity of Life. Penguin, London, UK, p 432.Google Scholar
  113. Yongchaiyudha S, Rungpitarangsi V, Bunyapraphatsara N, et al. (1996) Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L. juice. I. Clinical trial in new cases of diabetes mellitus. Phytomedicine 3(3): 241–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ripu M. Kunwar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Laxmi Mahat
    • 2
  • Lila N. Sharma
    • 1
  • Keshab P. Shrestha
    • 3
  • Hiroo Kominee
    • 4
  • Rainer W. Bussmann
    • 5
  1. 1.Centre for Biological ConservationNayabazar, KathmanduNepal
  2. 2.KathmanduNepal
  3. 3.Natural History Museum, SwayambhuTribhuvan UniversityKathmanduNepal
  4. 4.Hatai ClinicKYG Iryoukai Medical AssociationNakacho, TokyoJapan
  5. 5.William L. Brown CenterMissouri Botanical GardenSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations