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Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 535–543 | Cite as

Debris-flow of Zelongnong Ravine in Tibet

  • Jinshan ZhangEmail author
  • Xingju Shen
Article

Abstract

Zelongnong Ravine, a branch ravine of Brahmaputra, is an old large glacier debris-flow ravine. Debris-flows with medium and/or small scales occur almost every year; multiple super debris-flows have also broken out in history, and have caused destructive disaster to local residents at the mouth of ravine and blocked Brahmaputra. The huge altitude difference and the steep slope of the Zelongnong Ravine provide predominant energy conditions for the debris-flow. The drainage basin is located in the fast uplifted area, where the complicated geologic structure, the cracked rock, and the frequent earthquake make the rocks experience strong weathering, thus plenty of granular materials are available for the formation of debris-flows. Although this region is located in the rain shadow area, the precipitation is concentrated and most is with high intensity. Also, the strong glacier activity provides water source for debris-flow. According to literature reviews, most debris-flows in the ravine are induced by rainstorms, and their scales are relatively small. However, when the melted water is overlaid, the large scale debris-flows may occur. Parametric calculation such as the flow velocity and the runoff is conducted according to the monitoring data. The result shows that large debris-flows can be aroused when the rainstorm and the melted water are combined well, but the possibility of blocking off Brahmaputra is rare. The occurrence of the super debris-flows is closely related to the intense glacier activity (e.g., glacier surge). They often result in destructive disasters and are hard to be prevented and cured by engineering measures, due to the oversized scales. The hazard mitigation measures such as monitoring and prediction are proposed.

Keywords

Tibet The Brahmaputra The Mt Namjagbarwa Zelongnong Ravine Debris-flow 

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Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Mountain Hazards and Earth Surface Processes, Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentCASChengduChina
  2. 2.College of Tourism and History & Culture Southwest University for NationalitiesChengduChina
  3. 3.Graduate UniversityCASBeijingChina

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