Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 403–413 | Cite as

Determinants of household food security in Nepal: A binary logistic regression analysis

  • Keshav Lall MaharjanEmail author
  • Niraj Prakash Joshi


The study reveals that 10.2% of the sampled households in Nepal suffer from chronic food insecurity, i.e., neither are they able to produce sufficient food from their farms nor earn the food security threshold income for deficit months. With the highest and the lowest exponential value of coefficient obtained from binary logistic regression model, it is concluded that any program targeting occupational caste and small landholding farm category or landless will contribute significantly to reduce food insecurity. The provision of employment opportunities for economically active age group, thus, reducing dependency ratio from 1.2 (economically active population) to 0.7 (economically active age group) can also contribute significantly to reduce food insecurity. Significant positive coefficient of family size squared shows the increase in the probability of being foodinsecure with the increase in family size. In addition, an increase in irrigation availability can contribute significantly to reduce food insecurity. A significant proportion of male-headed households and households residing in Tarai are food-secure. This justifies the need to target female-headed households and households residing in Mountain and Hill in any program aimed at resolving food insecurity. A negative and significant association of household’s participation in community organizations and food insecurity fortifies the need for inclusion of vulnerable groups such as occupational caste, female-headed households, households with illiterate heads, small landholding farm category or landless, and households residing in Mountain and Hill (including some target communities in Tarai) in community organizations. Furthermore, making these communities a target of food security programs can help significantly to reduce the incidence of food insecurity.


Food security Nepal Household Resource ownership Occupational caste 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Babatunde OR, Omotesho OA, Sholotan OS (2007) Socioeconomics characteristics and food security status of farming households in Kwara state, North-central Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition l6(1): 49–58.Google Scholar
  2. Baidhya BG (2004) Food security situation in Nepal. The 6th Agricultural Research Development Forum General Meeting, Bangkok. (Retrieved on March 9, 2008 from
  3. Blaylock J, Blisard W (1995) Food security and health status in the United States. Applied Economics 27: 961–966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CBS (2003) National sample census of agriculture Nepal, 2001/02: Highlights. Kathmandu, Nepal: Central Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
  5. FAO (2005) Impact of climate change, pest and diseases on food security and poverty reduction. 31st Session of the Committee on World Food Security May 23–26. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
  6. FAO (2002) The state of food insecurity in the World: 2002. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  7. FAO (1996) Rome declaration on world food security and world food summit plan of action. World Food Summit 13–17 November 1996. Rome: FAO. (Retrieved on March 9, 2008 from HTM)Google Scholar
  8. Garson GD (2006) Logistic regression; Topics in multivariate analysis. (Retrieved on March 9, 2006 from
  9. Gubhaju B (2000) Women’s status, household structure and the utilization of maternal health services in Nepal. Master’s thesis. Thailand: Mahidol University.Google Scholar
  10. Haile HK, Alemu ZG, Kudhlande G (2005) Causes of household food insecurity in Koredegaga Peasant Association, Oromiya Zone, Ehiopia. Agrekon 44(4):543–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hoddinott J (1999) Choosing outcome indicators of household food security. Technical guide #7. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  12. Hofferth SL (2003) Persistence and change in the food security of families with children, 1997–1999. USA: Department of Family Studies, University of Maryland.Google Scholar
  13. IPRAD (2005) Macroeconomics policies shocks and poverty reduction in Nepal. Kathmandu: Institute for Policy Research and Development.Google Scholar
  14. Joshi NP, Maharjan KL (2007) Assessment of food selfsufficiency and food security situation in Nepal. Journal of International Development and Cooperation 13(1):209–230.Google Scholar
  15. Joshi NP, Maharjan KL (2008) A study on rural poverty using inequality decomposition in Western Hills of Nepal: A case of Gulmi district. Journal of International Development and Cooperation 14(2):1–17.Google Scholar
  16. Kebede TA (2001) Farm household technical efficiency: A stochastic frontier analysis; A study of rice producers in Mardi watershed in the Western Development Region of Nepal. Master’s Thesis. Norway: Agricultural University of Norway.Google Scholar
  17. Khattri-Chhetri A, Joshi NM, Maharjan KL (2007) Intervention on livelihood management through community-based organizations: Evidence from rural Nepal. Journal of International Development and Cooperation 13(1): 187–208.Google Scholar
  18. Koirala GP, Thapa GB (1997) Food security challenges where does Nepal stand? Research Report Series No. 36. Kathmandu: Ministry of Agriculture/Winrock International.Google Scholar
  19. Maharjan KL (2003) Food procurement, and civil society organization in Nepal. In M Domroes (ed.), Translating development: The case of Nepal. New Delhi: Social science press. pp 119–132.Google Scholar
  20. Martin KS, Rogers BL, Cook JT, Joseph HM (2004) Social capital is associated with decreased risk of hunger. Social Science & Medicine 58:2646–2654.Google Scholar
  21. MOAC (2005) Selected indicators of Nepalese agriculture and population. Kathmandu: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives.Google Scholar
  22. Mutonotzo C (2006) Socio economic implications of urban agriculture on livelihoods and food security in Harare. Master’s thesis. Zimbabwe, Harare: University of Zimbabwe.Google Scholar
  23. Obamiro EO, Doppler W, Kormawa PM (2003) Pillars of food security in rural areas of Nigeria. Food Africa, Internet Forum 31 March–11 April, 2003. (Retrieved on March 8, 2007 from
  24. Pyakuryal B, Thapa YB, Roy D (2005) Trade liberalization and food security in Nepal. MTID Discussion Paper No. 88. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  25. Rose D, Gundersen C, Oliveira V (1998) Socio-economic determinants of food insecurity in the United States: Evidence from the SIPP and CSF-II datasets. Technical Bulletin No.1869. USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  26. Rudie I (1995) The significance of eating: Cooperation, support, and reputation in Kelantan Malay households. In: W.J. Karim (ed.), Male and female in developing Southeast Asia. Washington DC: Berg publishers. p 228.Google Scholar
  27. Sen A (1981) Poverty and famines: An essay on entitlement and deprivation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Sandoval VN, Larona F, Puerto G (1987) Family profiles of selected functional groups in Palawan. FAO/TCP/PHI Project 6652. UP Los Baños, Laguna: Institute of Human Nutrition and Food.Google Scholar
  29. Sheddon D, Adhikari J (2003) Conflict and food security in Nepal: A preliminary study. Kathmandu: Rural Reconstruction Nepal.Google Scholar
  30. Subedi BP (2001) Population and environment: A situation analysis of population, cultivated land, and basic crops production in Nepal in 2001. In: Population Monograph of Nepal Volume II. Kathmandu, Nepal: Central Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
  31. Thapa S (2008) Gender differentials in agricultural productivity: Evidence from Nepalese household data. MPRA Paper No. 13722. Munich, Germany: Munich Personal RePEc Archive.Google Scholar
  32. World Bank (2006) Nepal resilience amidst conflict: An assessment of poverty in Nepal, 1995–96 and 2003–04. Report No. 34834. Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  33. WFP (2001) Nepal food security and vulnerability profile 2000. Kathmandu: VAM Unit World Food Programme.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation (IDEC)Hiroshima UniversityHiroshimaJapan

Personalised recommendations