Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 173–180 | Cite as

Micromorphological analysis of soil structure under no tillage management in the black soil zone of Northeast China

  • Hu Zhou
  • Baoguo Li
  • Yizhong LuEmail author
Article

Abstract

The structure of the “black soil” in Northeast China has been greatly deteriorated by long-term intensive conventional mouldboard plow tillage (CT) practices. In this study, micromorphological observation and image analysis of soil thin sections were conducted to evaluate the impacts of 21 years (1986–2007) of no tillage (NT) on soil structure as compared to CT in an experiment near Gongzhuling City, Jilin Province. Soil organic matter (SOM), wet aggregate stability and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were also analyzed. Total SOM was not significantly affected by tillage systems, but fresher SOM was observed in the surface layer under NT. The aggregates under NT showed different hierarchies in the form of crumbs, and the mean weight diameter (MWD) of NT was significant higher than that of CT in the surface layer. Platy and blocky aggregates were frequently observed in the lower layers under CT practice. The compound pore structure with intertwined intra- and inter- aggregates pores under NT was well developed in a layer from 0–5 cm to 20–25 cm. While under CT system, more inter-aggregate pores and fewer intraaggregate pores were observed, and planes and channels were frequently found in the 20–25 cm layer, where macroporosity decreased significantly and a plow pan was evident. The Ks values of NT were significantly lower at 0–5 cm but significantly higher at 20–25 cm compared with CT, which showed the same trend with macroporosity. These results confirmed that long-term CT practice fragmented the tillage layer soil and compacted the lower layer soil and formed a plow pan. While long-term NT practice in the black soil region favored soil aggregation and a stable porous soil structure was formed, which are important to the water infiltration and prevent soil erosion.

Keywords

No tillage soil structure soil micromorphology image analysis black soil 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Angers, D.A., Bolinder M.A., Carter M.R., Gregorich E.G., Drury C.F., Liang B.C., Voroney R.P., Simard R.R., Donald R.G. and Beyaert R.P. 1997. Impact of Tillage Practices on Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Storage in Cool, Humid Soils of Eastern Canada. Soil & Tillage Research 41:191–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azooz, R.H. and Arshad M.A. 1996. Soil Infiltration and Hydraulic Conductivity under Long-term No-tillage and Conventional Tillage Systems. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 76:143–152.Google Scholar
  3. Bronick, C.J. and Lal R. 2005. Soil Structure and Management: a Review. Geoderma 124: 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dexter, A.R. 1988. Advances in Characterization of Soil Structure. Soil Till. Res 11: 199–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eynard A., Schumacher T. E., Lindstrom M. J. and Malo D. D. 2004. Porosity and Pore-Size Distribution in Cultivated Ustolls and Usterts. Soil Science Society of American Journal 68: 1927–1934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kay, B.D. and VandenBygaart A.J. 2002. Conservation Tillage and Depth Stratification of Porosity and Soil Organic Matter. Soil & Tillage Research 66:107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Klute, A., Dirksen, C., 1986. Hydraulic Conductivity and Diffusivity: Laboratory Methods. In: Klute, A. (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, 2nd Edition. Agronomy 9, Pp. 687–734.Google Scholar
  8. Lipiec, J., Kus J., Slowinska J.A. and Nosalewicz A. 2006. Soil Porosity and Water Infiltration as Influenced by Tillage Methods. Soil & Tillage Research 89: 210–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Martinez, E., Fuentes J. P., Silva P., Valle S. and Acevedo E. 2008. Soil Physical Properties and Wheat Root Growth as Affected by No-tillage and Conventional Tillage Systems in a Mediterranean Environment of Chile. Soil & Tillage Research. 99: 232–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. McCarty, G.W. 1998. Short-term Changes in Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Pools during Tillage Management Transition. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62:1564–1571.Google Scholar
  11. Miller, J.J., Kokko E.G., Kozub G.C. 1998. Comparison of Porosity in a Charnozemic Clay Loam Soil under Long-term Conventional Tillage and No-till. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 78(4): 619–629.Google Scholar
  12. Mooney, S.J., Morris C., Craigon J., and Berry P.. 2007. Quantification of Soil Structural Changes Induced by Cereal Anchorage Failure: Image Analysis of Thin Sections. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 170(3): 363–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Murphy C.P. 1986. Thin Section Preparation of Soils and Sediments. In: AB Academic Publ., Berkhamsted.Google Scholar
  14. Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E., 1996. Total Carbon Organic Carbon and Organic Matter. In: Bigham, J.M. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods, SSSA Book Series no. 5. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. and Am. Soc. Agron. Madison, WI, USA. Pp. 961–1010.Google Scholar
  15. Nimmo, J.M., Perkins, K.S. 2002. Aggregates Stability and Size Distribution. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part4-Physical Methods. Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Pp. 317–328Google Scholar
  16. Pagliai, M., Vignozzi N. and Pellegrini S. 2004. Soil Structure and the Effect of Management Practices. Soil & Tillage Research 79:131–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pagliai, M., Raglione, M., Panini, T., Maletta, M., Marca M La. 1995. The Structure of Two Alluvial Soils in Italy after 10 Years of Conventional and Minimum Tillage. Soil & Tillage Research 34(4): 209–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pires, L.F., Cooper M., Cassaro F.A.M., Reichardt K., Bacchi O.O.S. and Dias N.M. 2008. Micromorphological Analysis to Characterize Structure Modifications of Soil Samples Submitted to Wetting and Drying Cycles. Catena 72:297–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ringrose-Voase, A.J. 1991. Micromorphology of Soil Structure: Description, Quantification, Application. Australian Journal of Soil Research 29:777–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. SAS Institue. 1996. System for Information. Version 6.11. SAS Institute Inc., CaryGoogle Scholar
  21. Sasal, M.C., Andriulo A.E. and Taboada M.A. 2006. Soil Porosity Characteristics and Water Movement under Zero Tillage in Silty Soils in Argentinian Pampas. Soil & Tillage Research 87:9–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shukla, M.K., Lal R.B., Owens L., Unkefer P., 2003. Land Use Management Impacts on Structure and Infiltration Characteristics of Soils in the North Appalachian Region of Ohio. Soil Science. 168: 167–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Six, J., Elliott E.T. and Paustian K. 1999. Aggregate and Soil Organic Matter Dynamics under Conventional and No-Tillage Systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63:1350–1358.Google Scholar
  24. Stoops, G. 2003. Guidelines for Analysis and Description of Soil and Regolith Thin Sections. In: Vepraskas M J. Handbook for Soil Thin Section Description. Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, USAGoogle Scholar
  25. Tiessen, H. and Moir, J.O., 1993. Total and Organic Carbon. In: Carter, M.R. (Ed.), Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. Pp. 187–199.Google Scholar
  26. VandenBygaart, A.J. and Protz R. 1999. The Representative Elementary Area (REA) in Studies of Quantitative Soil Micromorphology. Geoderma 89: 333–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vandenbygaart, A.J., R. Protz, and A.D. Tomlin. 1999. Changes in Pore Structure in a No-till Chronosequence of Silt Loam Soils, Southern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 79: 149–160.Google Scholar
  28. Wairiu, M. and Lal R. 2006. Tillage and Land Use Effects on Soil Microporosity in Ohio, USA and Kolombangara, Solomon Islands. Soil & Tillage Research 88: 80–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. WANG X.B., Cai D.X., Hoogmoed W.B., Oenema O. and Perdok U.D. 2007. Developments in Conservation Tillage in Rainfed Regions of North China. Soil & Tillage Research 93: 239–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. XIONG Y and Li Q. K. 1987. Soils in China. Science Press, Beijing.Google Scholar
  31. XU Y., Zhang F., Hao X., Wang J., Wang R and Kong X. 2006. Influence of Management Practices on Soil Organic Matter Changes in the Northern China Plain and Northeastern China. Soil & Tillage Research 86: 230–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Young, I.M., Crawford J.W. and Rappoldt C. 2001. New Methods and Models for Characterising Structural Heterogeneity of Soil. Soil & Tillage Research 61: 33–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. YU G., FANG H., GAO L and ZHANG W. 2006. Soil Organic Carbon Budget and Fertility Variation of Black Soils in Northeast China. Ecological Research 21: 855–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Soil and Water SciencesChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations