Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 034–056 | Cite as

Assessment of diversity, distribution, conservation status and preparation of management plan for medicinal plants in the catchment area of parbati hydroelectric project stage — III in Northwestern Himalaya

  • S. S. SamantEmail author
  • Jitendra S. Butola
  • Aman Sharma
Article

Abstract

The developmental activities, particularly the construction of hydroelectric projects are causing a great loss of biodiversity in the Indian Himalayan Region. The Himachal Pradesh, a part of IHR is well known for the development of hydroelectric projects. The Parbati H.E. Project is amongst the major projects of the State. The different stages of the project are all causing loss of biodiversity of the area. Stage III of the Parbati H.E. Project is a run of the river scheme on the Sainj River downstream of Power House of Parbati H.E. Project Stage II. The project shall utilize regulated discharge of Parbati H.E. Project Stage II and inflow of River Sainj for power generation, and has been contemplated as a peaking station operating in tandem with Stage II. The present study has been undertaken to see the impact of hydroelectric project on the biodiversity, particularly on medicinal plants. A total of 104 species of medicinal plants, belonging to different life forms, i.e., trees (23 spp.), shrubs (22 spp.), herbs (57 spp.) and ferns (2 spp.) were recorded. The species have been analyzed and studied for their distribution, classification, altitudinal zones, part (s) used, indigenous uses, nativity, endemism and rarity. DDifferent parts of these species, such as whole plants, roots (including rhizomes and tubers), leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, stems, barks, spikes, nuts and insect galls are used by the inhabitants for curing various diseases and ailments. 30 species are native to the Himalayan region, 9 species native to the Himalayan region and adjacent countries also and 65 species are non-natives. 9 species are near endemics. Considering the whole Himalaya as a biogeographic unit (sensu lato), the near endemics are endemic to the Himalaya. Among these species, Zanthoxylum armatum is categorized as Endangered and Valeriana wallichii as Vulnerable. Hedychium spicatum, Rhus javanica, Berberis lycium, Thalictrum foliolossum, Salvia lanata, Rubia cordifolia and Bergenia ligulata may be considered as threatened species due to their over exploitation for trade. 90 species are propagated by seeds, 8 species by seeds and rhizomes/roots/tubers, 4 species by seeds and cuttings, and 2 species by sori. A management plan for the cultivation and conservation of the medicinal plants in the dam submergence area, and the commercially viable medicinal plants with high value in the catchment area is suggested.

Keywords

Hydroelectric project dam submergence area management plan medicinal plant diversity native endemic endangered conservation status indigenous uses Indian Himalaya 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anonymous, 1883–1970. Index Kewensis Plantarum Phanerogamarum Vol. 1–2 (1883–1885) and 15 Suppl. (1886–1970). Clarendron Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous. 1970–1988. The Wealth of India: Raw Materials, Vol. I–XI. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India (Reprinted).Google Scholar
  3. Awasthi, A., Rawat, G.S. and Rajvanshi, A. 1999. Assessment of Human use and ethnobiological values in Tehri Dam submerible area, Garhwal Himalaya. J. Non-Timber Forest Products 6(3/4): 199–206.Google Scholar
  4. Badola, H.K. and Butola, J.S. 2003. Cultivation production trials of Heracleum candicans, a threatened high value medicinal herb, in Himachal Himalaya. Umbellifereae Improvement Newsletter, USA 13: 6–10.Google Scholar
  5. Badola, H.K. and Butola, J.S. 2005. Effect of ploughing depth on the growth and yield of Heracleum candicans: a threatened medicinal herb and a less-explored potential crop of the Himalayan region; Journal of Mountain Science 2(2): 173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buch, V.B. 2000. Need, environmental appraisal, scope and measures for environment management in Sardar Sarovar Multi-purpose project. In: Goel, R.S. (ed.) Environmental Management in Hydropower and River Valley Projects: Techniques of management, policy issues, case studies and application of scientific tools. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.. New Delhi, Pp. 211–221.Google Scholar
  7. Butola, J.S. and Badola, H.K. 2004a. Seed germination improvement using chemicals in Heracleum candicans Wall, a threatened medicinal herb of Himalaya. Indian Forester 130(5): 565–572.Google Scholar
  8. Butola, J.S. and Badola, H.K. 2004b. Effect of pre-sowing treatment on seed germination and seedling vigour in Angelica glauca, a threatened medicinal herb. Current Science 87(6): 796–799.Google Scholar
  9. Chowdhery, H.J. and Wadhwa, B.M. 1984. Flora of Himachal Pradesh, Vols. 1–3. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.Google Scholar
  10. Dhaliwal, D.S. and Sharma, M. 1999. Flora of Kullu District (Himachal Pradesh). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.Google Scholar
  11. Dhar, U. and Samant, S.S. 1993. Endemic diversity of Indian Himalaya I. Ranunculaceae and II. Paeoniaceae. Journal of Biogeography 20: 659–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dhar, U., Manjkhola, S., Joshi, M., Bhatt, I. D., Bisht, A.K. and Joshi, M. 2002. Current status and future strategy for development of medicinal plants sector in Uttaranchal, India. Current Science 83(8): 956–964.Google Scholar
  13. Goel, R.S. 2000. (Ed.) Environmental Management in Hydropower and River Valley Projects: Techniques of management, policy issues, case studies and application of scientific tools. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, Pp. 407.Google Scholar
  14. Goverdhan, V. 1993. Environmental Impact Assessment of Tehri Dam. Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  15. Jain, S.K. 1971. Dictionary of Indian Folk Medicine and Ethnobotany. Deep Publications, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  16. Mohanty, R.P. and Mathew, T. 1987. Some investigations relating to environmental impacts of a water resource project. Journal of Environment Management 24: 315–336.Google Scholar
  17. Nair, P.V. and Balasubramanyam, K. 1985. Long term environmental and ecological impact of multi-purpose river valley project in Idukki, Periyar and Silent Valley. Kerala Forest Research Institute. Research Report No. 26, Kerala, Pp, 1–75.Google Scholar
  18. Paranjapye, V. 1988. Evaluating the Tehri Dam. An INTACH series, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  19. Saklani, V.D. 1987. A Dangerous Venture. In INTACH series 6. The Tehri Dam. INTACH, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  20. Samant, S.S. and Dhar, U. 1997. Diversity, endemism and economic potential of wild edible plants of Indian Himalaya. Int. J. Sustain. Dev. & World Ecology 4: 179–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Samant, S.S. 1998. Diversity, distribution and conservation of fodder resource of west Himalaya, India. In: Misri, B. (ed.), Proceedings of the Third Temperate Pasture and Fodder Network (TAPAFON), Pokhra, Nepal, sponsored by F.A.O. Rome, Pp. 109–128.Google Scholar
  22. Samant, S.S., Dhar, U. and Palni, L.M.S. 1998. Medicinal Plants of Indian Himalaya: Diversity Distribution Potential Values. Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital.Google Scholar
  23. Samant, S.S. and Palni, L.M.S. 2000. Diversity, distribution and indigenous uses of essential oil yielding medicinal plants of Indian Himalayan region. J. Med. Arom. Plant Sci., 22: 671–684.Google Scholar
  24. Samant, S.S., Dhar, U, and Rawal, R.S. 2001. Diversity, distribution and indigenous uses of threatened medicinal plants of Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in West Himalaya: Conservation and Management prospective. In: Samant, S.S., U., Dhar, and L,M.S., Palni (eds.), Himalayan medicinal Plants: Potential and Prospects. Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital, 167–184.Google Scholar
  25. Samant, S.S. and Pal, M. 2003. Diversity and conservation status of medicinal plants in Uttaranchal State. Indian Forester 129(9): 1090–1108.Google Scholar
  26. Samant, S.S. and Pant, S. 2003. Diversity, distribution pattern and traditional knowledge of Sacred Plants in Indian Himalayan Region. Indian Journal of Forestry 26(3): 201–213.Google Scholar
  27. Sharma, S. and Kuniyal, J.C. 2005. Hydropower projects in the Beas valley of Himachal Pradesh: Myths and Facts. XXVII Indian Geography Congress, NAGI, Dept. of Geography & Geoinformatics, Banglore University, Banglore, December, 2–4, 2005, Souvenir & Abstract, Pp. 57.Google Scholar
  28. Sinclair, A.J. 2003. Assessing the Impacts of Micro-hydro development in the Kullu District, Himachal Pradesh, India. Mountain Research and Development 23(1): 11–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Singh, D.K. and Hajra, P.K. 1997. Florestic diversity. In Gujral (ed.), Biodiversity Status in the Himalaya. British Council, New Delhi, Pp. 23–38.Google Scholar
  30. Singh, S.K. and Rawat, G.S. 2000. Flora of Great Himalayan National Park. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun.Google Scholar
  31. Ved, D.K., Kinhal, G.A., Ravikumar, K., Prabhakaran, V., Ghate, U., Vijaya Shankar, R. and Indresha, J.H. 2003. Conservation assessment and management prioritization for the Medicinal plants of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh & Uttaranchal. Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions, Bangalore, India.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. S. Samant
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jitendra S. Butola
    • 1
  • Aman Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and DevelopmentMohal-KulluIndia

Personalised recommendations