Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 71–80 | Cite as

Impacts of Yulong Mountain glacier on tourism in Lijiang

  • Yuan Lingling Email author
  • Lu Aigang 
  • Ning Baoying 
  • He Yuanqing 


The glacier on the Yulong Mountain is one of the most important attractions in Lijiang, Yunnan, China. But it keeps retreating these years due to global warming, which is bound to influence regional tourism significantly in Lijiang. This study estimates the effects of the glacier retreat of the Yulong Mountains on tourism there. Primary data were collected through a visitor survey including demographics, motives, lengths of stay, and opinions about each tourism resource from tourists to Lijiang, as well as questions about which scenic spot(s) they had visited or would visit, how much they expended per day during their visit and how their visiting behavior would be changed upon the hypothesis that the glacier would disappear. These data were used to analyze the proportion of the contribution of glacier to the tourism in Lijiang and estimate the impact of glacier on the regional tourism quantitatively. According to the survey, it could be concluded that three quarters of the tourists to Lijiang were interested in the Yulong Mountain glacier, indicating that the glacier possesses notable appeal for sightseeing tourists. The results of our analysis showed that about 689,013∼1,508,247 tourists, accounting for 19.63∼42.97 % of the total 3,510,000 domestic tourists to Lijiang in 2004, would not come to Lijiang in the absence of the glacier, resulting in a possible direct economic loss of 84,382,508 ∼ 184,713,011 USD (viz. 700,374,824 ∼ 1,533,117,993 RMB) and a markedly decrease in the attraction radius.

Key words

Glacier retreat tourism economic impact appraisal Lijiang Yulong Mountain China 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. BAO Jigang, CHU Yifang. 1990. Tourism Geography (revision), Beijing: Higher Education Press. Pp. 52–55. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  2. BAO Jigang, ZHENG Haiyan, DAI Guangquan. 2002. The Evolvement of Spatial Structure and the Significance of Guilin’s Domestic Tourist Origins. Acta Geographica Sinica 57(1): 96–106. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. Bartlein P, Whitlock C, Shafer S. 1997. Future Climate in the Yellowstone National Park Region and its Potential Impact on Vegetation. Conservation Biology 11(3): 782–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bloomfield J, Hamburg S P. 1997. Summary of the Report: “Seasons of Change: Global Warming and New England’s White Mountain” in New England Regional Climate Change Impacts Workshop: Workshop Summary Report Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space. University of New Hampshire. Durham, NH, USA. Pp. 93–96.Google Scholar
  5. Breiling M, Charamza P. 1999. The Impact of Global Warming on Winter Tourism and Skiing: a Regionalised Model for Austrian Snow Conditions. Regional Environmental Change 1(1): 4–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bürki R, Elsasser H, Abegg B. 2003. Climate Change-Impacts on the Tourism Industry in Mountain Areas. First International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism. Djerba, Tunisia, 9–11 April 2003.Google Scholar
  7. Elsasser H, Bürki R. 2002. Climate Change as a Threat to Tourism in the Alps. Climate Research 20: 253–257.Google Scholar
  8. Galloway R W. 1988. The Potential Impact of Climate Changes on Australian Ski Fields. In: Pearman GI (ed.), Greenhouse: Planning for climatic change. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia. Pp. 428–437.Google Scholar
  9. Hall M, Farge D. 2003. Modeled climate-induced glacier change in Glacier National Park, 1850–2100. BioScience 53(2): 131–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Harrison S J, Winterbottom S J, Sheppard C. 1999. The Potential Effects of Climate Change on the Scottish Tourist Industry. Tourism Management 20: 203–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. HE Y Q, ZHANG Z L, Theakstone W H, CHEN T et al. 2003a. Recent Variability of the Climate and Glaciers in China’s Monsoon Region. IAHS Publication 280: 104–113.Google Scholar
  12. HE Y Q, GU J, ZHANG D. 2003b. What is the Major Reason for Glacier Retreat on Yulong Mountain, China. Journal of Glaciology 49(165): 325–326.Google Scholar
  13. König U. 1998. Tourism in a Warmer World: Implications of Climate Change due to Enhanced Greenhouse Effect for the Ski Industry in the Australian Alps. Wirtschaftsgeographie und Raumplanung, Vol. 28, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  14. König U and Abegg B. 1997. Impacts of climate change on tourism in the Swiss Alps. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 5(1): 46–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lamothe and Periard. 1988. Implications of climate change for downhill skiing in Quebec. Climate Change Digest 88-03, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  16. LI Jijun, SU Zhen. 1996. Glaciers in Hengduan Mountain Range. Beijing, China: Science Press. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  17. McBoyle GR and Wall G. 1992. Great lakes skiing and climate change. In: Gill A and Hartmann R (eds.), Mountain resort development. Centre for Tourism Policy and Research, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada, 70–81.Google Scholar
  18. McDonald K, Brown J. 1992. Using montane mammals to model extinctions due to global change, Conservation Biology, 6(3): 409–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Richardson R B, Loomis J B. 2003. The effects of climate change on mountain tourism: a contingent behavior methodology. First International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism, Djerba, Tunisia, 9–11 April 2003.Google Scholar
  20. Scott D. 2003. Climate Change and Tourism in the Mountain Regions of North America. First International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism, Djerba, Tunisia, 9–11 April 2003.Google Scholar
  21. Scott D, Jones B, Lemieux C, McBoyle G, Mills B, Svenson S, Wall G. 2002. The vulnerability of winter recreation to climate change in Ontario’s Lakelands Tourism Region. Occasional Paper 18, Department of Geography Publication Series, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.Google Scholar
  22. Scott D, McBoyle G, Mills B. 2003. Climate change and the skiing industry in Southern Ontario (Canada): Exploring the importance of snowmaking as a technical adaptation. Climate Research 23: 171–181.Google Scholar
  23. Scott D and Suffling R. 2000. Climate change and Canada’s National Parks, Environment Canada, Toronto.Google Scholar
  24. Smith L J. 1995. Tourism Analysis: A Handbook (Second Edition), Longman. Pp. 209–211.Google Scholar
  25. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 1997. The Old Town of Lijiang: Advisory Body Evaluation.Google Scholar
  26. WANG Xiaochun, ZHAO Shilin. 2002. On the layout structure of tourist destination in Yuannan. Geography and Territorial Research 18(1): 99–102. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  27. WU Bihu, TANG Junya, HUANG Anmin. et al. 1997. A study on destination choice behavior of Chinese urban residents. Acta Geographica Sinica 52(2): 97–103. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. XIE Youyu, CUI Zhijiu. 1989. M t. Yulong in Northern Yunnan. In: The glaciation and environment in eastern part of China during the Quaternary, Beijing: Science Press. Pp. 106–119. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. ZHANG Lingyun. 1999. Market Evaluation: A New Outlook of Tourism Resources. Tourism Tribune Bimonthly, 14(2): 47–52. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. ZHANG Zhonglin. 2005, Numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis of representive temperate-glacier to climatic change in China. PhD thesis, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. ZHAO Zongci. 2002. Prediction of climate change. In: Assessment on the Environmental Change in West China (Volume 2), Prediction of environmental change in West China, Beijing: Science Press. Pp. 16–44. (In Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuan Lingling 
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lu Aigang 
    • 1
  • Ning Baoying 
    • 1
  • He Yuanqing 
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering InstituteChinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouChina
  2. 2.The Institute of Tibet ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations