In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 369–381 | Cite as

Tissue culture of parasitic flowering plants: Methods and applications in agriculture and forestry

  • Shannon J. Deeks
  • Simon F. Shamoun
  • Zamir K. Punja
Feature Article

Summary

Parasitic flowering plants from 23 genera in 7 families (Convolvulaceae, Lauraceae, Loranthaceae, Orobanchaceae, Santalaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Viscaceae) have been cultured in vitro. These plants include both hemiparasites and holoparasites that parasitize stems and roots of angiosperms and gymnosperms. This review highlights relevant information on each genus with regard to its biology, distribution, host range, and tissue culture procedures. Tissue culture has been used to study aspects of the development, metabolism, reproduction, physiology and nutritional requirements of these plants under controlled conditions. Studies of host-parasite relationships, including potential roles of signals/receptors that influence host development and physiology, and factors influencing seed germination and haustorium formation, have been conducted. The effects of chemicals and herbicides on the physiology and biochemistry of parasite embryo and seedling development have been studied, as well as the influence of inhibitors or stimulants on seed germination. Tissue culture has provided a method for propagation and genetic improvement of plants with commercial value.

Key words

broomrape dodder figwort laurel mistletoe sandalwood 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Agrios, G. N. Plant pathology. 4th ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1997.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Babiker, A. G. T.; Cai, T.; Ejeta, G.; Butler, L. G.; Woodson, W. R. Enhancement of ethylene biosynthesis and germination with thidiazuron and some selected auxins in Striga asiatica seeds. Physiol. Plant. 9:529–536; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bagonneaud-Berthome, V.; Arnaud, M. C.; Fer, A. A new experimental approach to the chemical control of Striga using simplified models in vitro. Weed Res. 35:25–32; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bajaj, Y. P. S. Behavior of embryo segments of Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettings in vitro. Can. J. Bot. 44:1127–1131; 1966.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bajaj, Y. P. S. Some factors affecting growth of embryos of Dendrophthoe falcata in cultures. Can. J. Bot. 46:429–433; 1968.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bajaj, Y. P. S. Growth responses of excised embryos of some mistletoes. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 63:408–415; 1970.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bajaj, Y. P. S. Somatic embryogenesis in a mistletoe—Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettings. In: Bajaj, Y. P. S., ed. Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, Vol. 31. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1995:403–411.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bakos, A.; Fari, M.; Toldi, O.; Lados, M. Plant regeneration from seedling-derived callus of dodder (Cuscuta trifolii Bab. et Giggs). Plant Sci. 109:95–101; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baldev, B. In vitro responses of growth and development in Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Phytomorphology 9:316–319; 1959a.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baldev, B. In vitro culture of shoot apex of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Mem. Indian Bot. Soc. 2:40–42; 1959b.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bapat, V. A.; Fulzele, D. P.; Heble, M. R.; Rao, P. S. Production of sandalwood somatic embryos in bioreactors. Curr. Sci. 59:746–748; 1990.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bapat, V. A.; Iyer, R. K.; Rao, P. S. Effect of cyanobacterial extract on somatic embryogenesis in tissue cultures of sandalwood (Santalum album). J. Med. Aromatic Plant Sci. 18:10–14; 1996.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bapat, V. A.; Rao, P. S. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet formation in tissue cultures of sandalwood (Santalum album L.). Ann. Bot. 44:629–630; 1979.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bapat, V. A.; Rao, P. S. Regulatory factors for in vitro multiplication of sandalwood tree (Santalum album Linn.). I. Shoot bud regeneration and somatic embryogenesis in hypocotyl cultures. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 93:19–27; 1984.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bapat, V. A.; Rao, P. S. Sandalwood plantlets from ‘synthetic seeds’. Plant Cell Rep. 7:434–436; 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bapat, V. A.; Rao, P. S. Biotechnological approaches for sandalwood (Santalum album L.) micropropagation. Indian For. 118:48–54; 1992.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bapat, V. A.; Ravinder, G.; Rao, P. S. Regeneration of somatic embryos and plantlets from stem callus protoplasts of sandalwood tree (Santalum album L.). Curr. Sci. 54:978–982; 1985.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Barlass, M.; Grant, W. J. R.; Skene, K. G. M. Shoot regeneration in vitro from native Australian fruit-bearing trees—quandong and plum bush. Aust. J. Bot. 28:405–409; 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Becker, V. H.; Schwarz, G. Callus culture of Viscum album—a possible source for obtaining ingredients with therapeutic value. Plant. Med. 20:357–362; 1971a.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Becker, H.; Schwarz, G. In vitro culture of Viscum album L. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 59:273–278; 1971b.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ben-hod, G.; Losner, D.; Joel, D. M.; Mayer, A. M. In vitro culture of Orobanche aegyptiaca. Ann Bot. 68:413–416; 1991a.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ben-hod, G.; Losner, D.; Joel, D. M.; Mayer, A. M. Infection of tomato roots using calli of broomrape. Physiol. Plant. 83:353–356; 1991b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ben-hod, G.; Losner, D.; Joel, D. M.; Mayer, A. M. Pectin methylesterase in calli and germinating seeds of Orobanche aegyptiaca. Phytochemistry. 32:1399–1402; 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ben-hod, G.; Nun, N. B.; Tzaban, S.; Mayer, A. M. Inhibitors of polygalacturonase in calli of Orobanche aegyptiaca. Phystochemistry. 45:1115–1121; 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bhatnagar, S. P. In vitro morphogenic responses of mistletoes. In: Weber, H. C.; Forstreuter, W., ed. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Parasitic Flowering Plants. Marburg, Germany: Philips University; 1987:105–108.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bhojwani, S. S. Morphogenesis of embryo in a parasitic angiosperm Exocarpos cupressiformis. Curr. Sci. 38:6–8; 1969.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bhojwani, S. S.; Johri, B. M. Cytokinin-induced shoot bud differentiation in mature endosperm of Scurrula pulverulenta. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 63:269–275; 1970.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Binding, H. Regeneration of haploid and diploid plants from protoplasts of Petunia hybrida L. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 74:327–356; 1974.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Binding, H.; Nehls, R.; Klock, R.; Finger, J.; Mordhorst, G. Comparative studies on protoplast regeneration in herbaceous species of the dicotyledoneae class. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 101:119–130; 1981.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Blakely, L. M. Studies on the in vitro culture of Seudotsuga menziesii and Arceuthobium douglasii. Proc. Mont. Acad. Sci. 18:21–25; 1958.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bonga, J. M. Arceuthobium pusillum Peck: collection of seeds and in vitro culture of the early seedling stage. Can. J. Bot. 43:1307–1308; 1965.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bonga, J. M. The effect of growth substances on the development of Arceuthobium pusillum Peck cultured in vitro. In: Wightman, F.; Setterfield, G., ed. Biochemistry of plant growth hormones. Ottawa: Runge Press; 1968:867–874.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bonga, J. M. The morphology and anatomy of holdfasts and branching radicles of Arceuthobium pusillum cultured in vitro. Can. J. Bot. 47:1935–1938: 1969.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bonga, J. M. Formation of holdfasts, callus, embryoids and haustorial cells in the in vitro cultures of dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium pusillum. Phytomorphology 21:140–153; 1971.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bonga, J. M. The formation of branching strands at the apex of radicles of Arceuthobium pusillum cultured in vitro. Can. J. Bot. 52:2113–2115; 1974.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bonga, J. M.; Chakraborty, C. In vitro culture of a dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium pusillum. Can. J. Bot. 46:161–164; 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cai, T.; Babiker, A. G.; Ejeta, G.; Butler, L. G. Morphological response of witchweed (Striga asiatica) to in vitro culture. J. Exp. Bot. 44:1377–1384; 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Calvin, C. L. Anatomy of mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens) seedlings growth in culture. Bot. Gaz. 127:171–183; 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cantlon, J. E.; Curtis, E. J. C.; Malcolm, W. M. Studies of Melampyrum lineare. Ecology 44:466–474; 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chidley, V. L.; Drennan, D. S. H. In vitro culture of Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze. In: Weber, H. C.; Forstreuter, W., ed. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Parasitic Flowering Plants. Marburg, Germany: Philips University; 1987:829–831.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Deeks, S. J.; Shamoun, S. F.; Punja, Z. K. In vitro culture of western hemlock dwarf mistletoe. In: Sturrock, R., ed. Proceedings of the 45th Annual Western International Forest Disease Work Conference. Prince George, B.C.; 1997:74.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Diner, A. M.; Karnosky, D. F. Tissue culture application to forest pathology and pest control. In: Bonga, J. M.; Durzan, D. J., ed. Cell and tissue culture in forestry. Vol. 2. Specific principles and methods: growth and developments. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 1987:351–373.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Estabrook, E. M.; Yoder, J. I. Plant-plant communications: rhizosphere signaling between parasitic angiosperms and their hosts. Plant Physiol. 116:1–7; 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    French, R. C.; Sherman, L. J. Factors affecting dormancy, germination, and seedling development of Aeginetia indica L. (Orobanchaceae). Am. J. Bot. 63:558–570; 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fukui, M.; Azuma, J.; Okamura, K. Induction of callus from mistletoe and interaction with its host cells. Bull. Kyoto Univ. For. 62:261–269; 1990.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Furuhashi, K. Establishment of a successive culture of an obligatory parasitic flowering plant, Cuscuta japonica, in vitro. Plant Sci. 79:241–246; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Furuhashi, K.; Kanno, M.; Morita, T. Photocontrol of parasitism in a parasitic flowering plant, Cuscuta japonica Chois, cultured in vitro. Plant Cell Physiol. 36:533–553; 1995.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gamborg, O. L. Callus and cell culture. In: Gamborg, O. L.; Wetter, L. R., ed. Plant tissue culture methods. National Research Council of Canada; Publication No. 14303; 1975:1–10.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hall, P. J.; Letham, D. S.; Barlow, B. A. The influence of hormones on development of Amyema seedlings cultured in vitro. In: Weber, H. C.; Forstreuter, W., ed. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Parasitic Flowering Plants. Marburg, Germany: Philips University; 1987:285–291.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Harvey, A. E. Tissue culture of Pinus monticola on a chemically defined medium. Can. J. Bot. 45:1783–1787; 1967.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hawksworth, F. G.; Wiens, D. Dwarf mistletoes: Biology, pathology, and systematics. Agricultural Handbook No. 709. USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C.; 1996.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hoagland, D. R.; Arnon, D. I. The water culture method for growing plants without soil. Circular 347, College of Agriculture, Univ. of Calif; 1938.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Johri, B. M.; Bajaj, Y. P. S. Behaviour of mature embryos of Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettings in vitro. Nature (Lond) 193:194–195; 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Johri, B. M.; Bajaj, Y. P. S. In vitro response of the embryo of Dendrophthoe falcata (L.F.) Ettings. In: Maheshwari, P.; Ranga Swamy, N. S., ed. Plant tissue and organ culture. Delhi: Symposium of the International Society of Plant Morphology; 1963:292–301.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Johri, B. M.; Bajaj, Y. P. S. Growth of embryos of Amyema, Amylotheca and Scurrula on synthetic media. Nature (Lond) 204:1220–1221; 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Johri, B. M.; Bajaj, Y. P. S. Growth responses of globular proembryos of Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettings in culture. Phytomorphology 15:292–300; 1965.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Johri, B. M.; Bhojwani, S. S. Growth responses of mature endosperm in cultures. Nature (Lond) 208:1345–1347; 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Johri, B. M.; Nag, K. K. Experimental induction of triploid shoots in vitro from endosperm of Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettings. Curr. Sci. 37:606–607; 1968.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Johri, B. M.; Nag, K. K. Endosperm of Taxillus vestitus Wall: A system to study the effect of cytokinins in vitro in shoot bud formation. Curr. Sci. 39:177–179; 1970.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jurin, M.; Zarkovic, N.; Hrzenjak, M.; Ilie, Z. Antitumorous and immunomodulatory effects of the Viscum album L. preparation Isrorel. Oncology 50:393–398; 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kato, Y.; Hisano, K. In vitro culture of a root parasite, Aeginetia indica L. I. General survey. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 96:203–209; 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kato, Y.; Inoue, T.; Onishi, Y. In vitro culture of a root parasite, Aeginetia indica L. II. The plane of cell division in the tendril. Plant Cell Physiol. 25:981–987; 1984.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Knop, W. Quantitative Untersuchungen über die Ernährungsprozesse der Pflanzen. Die landwirtschaftlichen Versuchsstationen 7:93–107; 1865.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kuijt, J. The biology of parasitic flowering plants. Berkeley: University of California Press; 1969.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kuttan, G.; Vasudevan, D. M.; Kuttan, R. Effect of a preparation from Viscum album on tumor development in vitro and in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 29:35–41; 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lakshmi Sita, G. Tissue-cultured sandalwood. Curr. Sci. 59:794; 1991.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lakshmi Sita, G.; Raghava Ram, N. V.; Vaidy Anathan, C. S. Differentiation of embryoids and plantlets from shoot callus of sandalwood. Plant Sci. Lett. 15:265–270; 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lakshmi Sita, G.; Raghava Ram, N. V.; Vaidy Anathan, C. S. Triploid plants from endosperm cultures of sandalwood by experimental embryogenesis. Plant Sci. Lett. 20:63–69; 1980a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lakshmi Sita, G.; Shobha, J.; Vaidy Anathan, C. S. Regeneration of whole plants by embryogenesis from cell suspension cultures of sandalwood. Curr. Sci. 49:196–198; 1980b.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lane, J. A.; Bailey, J. A.; Terry, P. J. An in vitro growth system for studying the parasitism of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) by Striga gesnerioides. Weed Res. 31:211–217; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Linsmaier, E. M.; Skoog, F. Organic growth factor requirements of tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 18:100–127; 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Loo, S. Cultivation of excised stem tips of asparagus in vitro. Am. J. Bot. 32:13–17; 1945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Loo, S. Cultivation of excised stem tips of dodder in vitro. Am. J. Bot. 33:295–300; 1946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Losner-Goshen, D.; Ben-hod, G.; Mayer, A. M.; Joel, D. M. Aseptic broomrape infection of tomato root culture. Israel J. Plant Sci. 44:89–94; 1996.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Losner-Goshen, D.; Portnoy, V. H.; Mayer, A. M.; Joel, D. M. Pectolytic activity by the haustorium of the parasitic plant Orbanche L. (Orobanchaceae) in host roots. Ann. Bot. 81:319–326; 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Maheshwari, P.; Baldev, B. Artificial production of buds from the embryos of Cuscuta reflexa. Nature (Lond) 191:197–198; 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Maheshwari, R.; Shailini, C.; Veluthambi, K.; Mahadevan, S. Interaction of gibberellic acid and indole-3-acetic acid in the growth of excised Cuscuta shoot tips in vitro. Plant Physiol. 65:186–192; 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Maheshwari, R.; Sreekrishna, S. The apical control of lateral bud development in excised shoot tips of Cuscuta reflexa cultured in vitro. Physiol. Plant. 56:474–481; 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Marvier, M. A. Parasitic plant-host interactions: plant performance and indirect effects on parasite-feeding herbivores. Ecology 77:1398–1409; 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Murashige, T.; Skoog, F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15:473–497; 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Musselman, L. J. The biology of Striga, Orobanche, and other rootparasitic weeds. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 18:463–489; 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nag, K. K.; Johri, B. M.; Organogenesis and chromosomal constitution in embryo callus of Nuytsia floribunda. Phytomorphology 19:405–408: 1969.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nag, K. K.; Johri, B. M. Experimental morphogenesis of the embryo of Dendrophthoe, Taxillus, and Nuytsia. Bot. Gaz. 37:378–390; 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nag, K. K.; Ram, R. L. Studies on shoot bud formation in vitro. I. Effect of immersing embryo of Dendrophthoe falcata in kinetin solution. Curr. Sci. 46:828–829; 1977.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Nitsch, J. P. Growth and development in vitro of excised ovaries. Am. J. Bot. 38:566–577; 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Okonkwo, S. N. C. Studies on Striga senegalensis III. In vitro culture of seedlings—establishment of cultures. Am. J. Bot. 53:679–687; 1966a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Okonkwo, S. N. C. Studies on Striga senegalensis Benth. I. Mode of host-parasite union and haustorial structure. Phytomorphology 16:453–463; 1966b.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Okonkwo, S. N. C. Studies on Striga senegalensis V. Origin and development of buds from roots of seedlings reared in vitro. Phytomorphology 20:144–150; 1970.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Okonkwo, S. N. C. In vitro post-germination growth and development of embryos of Alectra (Scrophulariaceae). Physiol. Plant. 34:378–383; 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Okonkwo, S. N. C. Nutrient factors for shoot development and seedling growth of Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 106:381–389; 1982.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Okonkwo, S. N. C. In vitro growth response of cultured germinated seeds of witchweed (Striga asiatica) In: Ransom, J. K.; Musselman, L. J.; Worsham, A. D.; Parker, C., ed. Fifth International Symposium on Parasitic Weeds. Nairobi, Kenya; 1991:155–163.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Okonkwo, S. N. C. Micropropagation of some parasitic plants. In: Bajaj, Y. P. S., ed. Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry. Vol. 20. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1992:448–470.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Onofeghara, F. A. The effects of growth substances on the growth of Tapinanthus bangwensis (Loranthaceae) in vitro. Ann. Bot. 36:563–570; 1972.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Paliyath, G.; Rajagopal, I.; Unnikrishnan, P. O.; Mahadevan, S. Hormones and Cuscuta development: IAA uptake transport and metabolism in relation to growth in the absence and presence of applied cytokinin. J. Plant Growth Regul. 8:19–35; 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Parker, C.; Riches, C. A. Parasitic weeds of the world: biology and control. Wallingford: CAB International; 1993.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Press, M. C.; Graves, J. D. Parasitic plants. London: Chapman and Hall; 1995.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Press, M. C.; Graves, J. D.; Stewart, G. R. Physiology of the interaction of angiosperm parasites and their higher plants hosts. Plant Cell Environ. 13:91–104; 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rajagopal, I.; Ramasubramanian, T. S.; Paliyath, G.; Mahadevan, S. Hormones and Cuscuta development: interaction of cytokinin and indole-3-acetic acid in the growth and curvature of subapical stem segments. J. Plant Growth Regul. 7:121–132; 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ram, R. L.; Nag, K. K. Studies on shoot bud formation in vitro on embryo of Dendrophthoe falcata: a new report. Bionature 6:11–16; 1986.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ram, R. L.; Nag, K. K. Comparative studies on shoot formation from endosperm, embryo and in vitro-formed leaf cultures of Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettings. Bionature 8:47–55; 1988.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ram, R. L.; Singh, M. P. N. In vitro haustoria regeneration from embryo and in vitro-formed leaf callus cultures in Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettings. Adv. Plant Sci. 4:48–53; 1991.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ram, R. L.; Sood, S. K.; Singh, M. P. N. In vitro ontogeny, requirements, control and physiology of shoot bud regeneration in Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettings. Adv. Plant Sci. 6:115–127; 1993.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ramasubramanian, T. S.; Paliyath, G.; Rajagopal, I.; Maheshwari, R.; Mahadevan, S. Hormones and Cuscuta development: in vitro induction of haustoria by cytokinin and its inhibition by other hormones. J. Plant Growth Regul. 7:133–144; 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ranga Swamy, N. S. Studies on culturing seeds of Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers. In: Maheshwari, P., Ranga Swamy, N. S., ed. Plant tissue and organ culture. Delhi: Symposium of the International Society of Plant Morphology, 1963:345–354; 1963.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ranga Swamy, N. S. Morphogenesis of seed germination in angiosperms. Phytomorphology 17:477–487; 1967.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ranga Swamy, N. S.; Rangan, T. S. Effects of seed germination stimulants on the witchweed Striga euphrasioides (Vahl) Benth. Nature (Lond) 210:440–441; 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ranga Swamy, N. S.; Rao, P. S. Experimental studies on Santalum album L. Establishment of tissue culture of endosperm. Phytomorphology 13:450–454; 1963.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rangan, T. S. Morphogenesis of the embryo of Cistanche tubulosa Wight in vitro. Phytomorphology 15:180–182; 1965.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Rangan, T. S.; Ranga Swamy, N. S. Morphogenic investigations on parasitic angiosperms I. Cistanche tubulosa (Orobanchaceae). Can. J. Bot. 46:263–266; 1968.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Rangan, T. S.; Ranga Swamy, N. S. Morphogenic investigations on parasitic angiosperms. III. Cassytha filiformis (Lauraceae). Phytomorphology 19:292–300; 1969.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Rao, P. S. In vitro induction of embryonal proliferation in Santalum album L. Phytomorphology 15:175–179; 1965.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Rao, P. S.; Bapat, V. A. Vegetative propagation of sandalwood plants through tissue culture. Can. J. Bot. 56:1153–1156; 1978.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Rao, P. S.; Bapat, V. A. Morphogenetic investigations on tissue and organ cultures of sandalwood tree. In: Rao, P. S., ed. Proceedings of a national symposium on plant tissue culture. Genetic manipulation and somatic hybridization of plant cells. Bombay, India: Bhabha Atomic Research Centre; 1980:206–215.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Rao, P. S.; Bapat, V. A. Micropropagation of sandalwood (Santalum album L.). In: Bajaj, Y. P. S., ed. Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry. Vol. 18. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1992:193–210.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Rao, P. S.; Bapat, V. A.; Mhatre, M. Regulatory factors for in vitro multiplication of sandalwood tree (Santalum album Linn.). II. Plant regeneration in nodal and internodal stem explants and occurrence of somaclonal variations in tissue culture raised plants. Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad. B. 50:196–202; 1984.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Rao, K. S.; Chrungoo, N. K.; Sinha, A. Characterization of somatic embryogenesis in sandalwood (Santalum album L.). In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 32:123–128; 1996.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Rao, P. S.; Ozias-Akins, P. Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in protoplast cultures of sandalwood (Santalum album L.). Protoplasma 124:80–86; 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Rao, P. S.; Raghava Ram, N. V. Propagation of sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) using tissue and organ culture technique. In: Sen, S. K.; Giles, K. L. Plant cell culture in crop improvement. New York: Plenum Press; 1983:119–124.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Riopel, J. L.; Musselman, L. J. Experimental initiation of haustoria in Agalinis purpurea (Scrophulariaceae). Am. J. Bot. 66:570–575; 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Rugkhla, A.; Jones, M. G. K. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet formation in Santalum album and S. spicatum. J. Exp. Bot. 49:563–571; 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Sahai, A.; Shivanna, K. R. Seed germination and seedling growth in Sopubia delphinifolia—a hemi-root parasite: germination requirements. Ann. Bot. 5:775–783; 1985.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Scharpf, R. F. Resistance of jeffrey pine to dwarf mistletoe. In: Weber, H. C.; Forstreuter, W. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Parasitic Flowering Plants. Marburg, Germany: Philips University; 1987:745–753.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Shamoun, S. F. Development of biological control strategy for management of dwarf mistletoes. In: Sturrock, R., ed. Proceedings of the 45th Western International Forest Disease Work Conference. Prince George, B.C.; 1997:36–42.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Shivanna, K. R.; Ranga Swamy, N. S. Seed germination and seedling morphogenesis of the root parasite Sopubia delphinifolia. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 80:112–119; 1976.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Smith, C. A.; Dudley, M. W.; Lynn, D. G. Vegetative/parasitic transition: control and plasticity in Striga development. Plant Physiol. 93:208–215; 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Smith, R. B.; Wass, E. F.; Meagher, M. D. Evidence of resistance to hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense) in western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) clones. Eur. J. For. Pathol. 23:163–170; 1993.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Steffens, J. C.; Lynn, D. G.; Kamat, V. S., et al. Molecular specificity of haustorial induction in Agalinis purpurea (L.) Raf. (Scrophulariaceae). Ann. Bot. 50:1–7; 1982.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Steffens, J. C.; Lynn, D. G., Riopel, J. L. An haustoria inducer for the root parasite Agalinis purpurea. Phytochemistry. 25:2291–2298; 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Stewart, G. R.; Press, M. C. The physiology and biochemistry of parasitic angiosperms. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 41:127–151; 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Swamy, N. R.; Baldev, B. Studies on hormonal regulation of flowering using Cuscuta reflexa Roxb., a short day plant. Indian J. Plant Physiol. 31:343–348; 1988.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Tanaka, O.; Yoshikawa, S.; Takeba, G.; Furuhashi, K. Photoperiodic flowering of Cuscuta japonica cultured in vitro. Mem. Konan Univ. Sci. Ser. 42:143–151; 1995.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Tepfer, S. S.; Greyson, R. I.; Craig, W. R.; Hindman, J. L. In vitro culture of floral buds of Aquilegia. Am. J. Bot. 50:1035–1045; 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Trautmann, I. A.; Visser, J. H. In vitro seedling growth of the root parasites Alectra orobanchoides and Alectra vogelii benth. Environ. Exp. Bot. 27:341–347; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Valluri, J. V.; Treat, W. J.; Soltes, E. J. Bioreactor culture of heterotrophic sandalwood (Santalum album L.) cell suspensions utilizing a cell-lift impeller. Plant Cell Rep. 10:366–370; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Van Hezewij, M. J.; van Beem, A. P.; Verkleij, J. A. C. Germination of Orobanche crenata seeds, as influenced by conditioning temperature and period. Can. J. Bot. 71:786–792; 1993.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Wei, Z. M.; Xu, Z. H. Regeneration of fertile plants from embryogenic suspension culture protoplasts of Sorghum vulgare. Plant Cell Rep. 9:51–53; 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    White, P. R. A handbook of plant tissue culture. Lancaster, PA: Jaques Cattel Press; 1943.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Williams, C. N. Growth and morphogenesis of Striga seedlings. Nature (Lond) 189:378–381; 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wolf, S. J.; Timko, M. P. In vitro root culture: a novel approach to study the obligate parasite Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze. Plant Sci. 73:233–242; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Wolf, S. J.; Timko, M. P. Analysis of in vivo protein synthesis and histological studies of haustorial formation in root cultures of witchweed (Striga asiatica L. Kuntze). J. Exp. Bot. 43:1339–1348; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Worsham, A. D.; Moreland, D. E.; Klingman, G. C. Stimulation of Striga asiatica (witchweed) seed germination by 6-substituted purines. Science (Wash DC) 130:1654–1656; 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Yan, Z.; Reid, N. Mistletoe (Amyema miquelii and A. pendulum) seedling establishment on eucalypt hosts in eastern Australia. J. Appl. Ecol. 32:778–784; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for In Vitro Biology 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shannon J. Deeks
    • 1
  • Simon F. Shamoun
    • 2
  • Zamir K. Punja
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesSimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada
  2. 2.Canadian Forest ServicePacific Forestry CentreVictoriaCanada

Personalised recommendations