An efficient callus-based in vitro regeneration protocol for Warburgia Ugandensis Sprague, an important medicinal plant in Africa

  • Lingling ZhangEmail author
  • Shiyou Lü
  • Baiming Yang
  • Eugene P. Parsons


Warburgia ugandensis Sprague is a woody species in the family Canellaceae and an important source of medicines in Africa. Natural propagation of W. ugandensis is problematic due to its recalcitrant seeds and lack of an efficient in vitro regeneration system for this species. This study describes an efficient regeneration protocol. Petiole bases and shoot tips were used as explants. Callus tissue developed when the explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g L−1 sucrose and 7 g L−1 agar (MS30 medium), supplemented with 1.0 mg L−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 1.6 mg L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), and 0.1 mg L−1 thidiazuron (TDZ). Adventitious buds were efficiently induced from the callus when the MS30 medium was supplemented with 0.8 mg L−1 BA and 0.2 mg L−1 IBA. Root induction occurred within 7–10 d on half-strength MS30 medium supplemented with 0.8–1.0 mg L−1 1-napthalene acetic acid (NAA), 0.2 mg L−1 IBA, and 0.03% (w/v) activated charcoal (AC). Roots were followed by root elongation on the same medium but lacking NAA and IBA. Approximately 50% of the plantlets cultured produced roots, while more than 80% of the plantlets survived and successfully grew to maturity.


Warburgia ugandensis Callus-based regeneration Root induction percentage Plant growth regulators 



This research was funded by Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (grant no. Y455442c03).

Author contribution statement

LLZ and SYL designed the experiment. LLZ performed the experiment, analyzed the data, and draft the manuscript. YBM gave advice to solve the problem in the experiment. EPP revised the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

11627_2019_9961_MOESM1_ESM.docx (30 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 30 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Society for In Vitro Biology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Lab of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical GardenChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina
  2. 2.Sino-Africa Joint Research CenterChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina
  3. 3.Changchun Guoxin Modern Agricultural Science and Technology Development Co.,Ltd.ChangchunChina
  4. 4.Prairie State CollegeChicago HeightsUSA

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