In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant

, Volume 49, Issue 6, pp 724–736 | Cite as

Relationships between nutrients and plant density in liquid media during micropropagation and acclimatization of turmeric

  • Jeffrey Adelberg
  • Todd Driesse
  • Sean Halloran
  • William C. Bridges


To improve micropropagation and acclimatization of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), we evaluated the effects of media volume, plant density, macronutrient ion concentrations, cationic ratios [NH4 +]/[K+], and sucrose concentration. Multiplication was highest with low bud density. Yield of new plants was highest with high bud density, the most sucrose, the highest concentration of macronutrients, and the greatest volume of medium. However, maximum plant size required low-density, reduced sucrose and elimination of NH4 +. The largest plants grew quickest during greenhouse acclimatization when macronutrients were lowered to 20 mM. In a follow-up experiment, media volume was set at 40 mL with 5% sucrose with NH4 + reduced to 5 mM, and the effects of varying P, Ca, Mg, KNO3, and bud densities were assessed. The largest plants were produced at low density. More importantly, at high density the optimal concentrations of P, Ca, Mg, and KNO3 predicted plant size that was nearly equal to the maximum value from low-density cultures in the prior experiment. Growth of plants during greenhouse acclimatization was increased by modifications of in vitro medium with plants cultured with 3.32 mM P, 4.5 mM Mg, and 37 mM KNO3 predicted to grow most rapidly. The effect of starter fertilizer in the greenhouse mix was much less than the effects of P, Mg, and KNO3 in vitro. These results showed (1) optimal media formulae for different stages of micropropagation and (2) process-related factors such as plant density and media volume affected the optimal nutrient concentrations.


Curcuma longa d-Optimal Mineral nutrition Multifactor Response surface model 



The authors would like to acknowledge S. Reid Smith, who conducted the wet lab work on the second experiment.

Supplementary material

11627_2013_9576_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Electronic supplemental materials A (DOCX 26.3 kb)
11627_2013_9576_MOESM2_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Electronic supplemental materials B (DOCX 25.8 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Society for In Vitro Biology 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey Adelberg
    • 1
  • Todd Driesse
    • 1
  • Sean Halloran
    • 1
  • William C. Bridges
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Agriculture, Forestry and Environmental SciencesClemson UniversityClemsonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mathematical SciencesClemson UniversityClemsonUSA

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