High efficiency in vitro organogenesis from mature tissue explants of Citrus macrophylla and C. aurantium
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A simple and efficient protocol for obtaining organogenesis from mature nodal explants of Citrus macrophylla (alemow) and Citrus aurantium (sour orange) has been developed by optimizing the concentrations of the plant growth regulators, the incubation conditions, the basal medium and by the choice of explant. In order to optimize the plant growth regulator balance, explants were cultured in the regeneration medium supplemented with several N6-benzyladenine (BA) concentrations or with 2 mg l−1 BA in combination with kinetin (KIN) or 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The presence of BA was found to be essential for the development of adventitious buds; the best results were obtained using BA at 3 and 2 mg l−1 for alemow and sour orange, respectively. The combination of BA with KIN or NAA in the culture medium decreased the regeneration frequency, with respect to the use of BA alone. The effect of three different basal media was rootstock-dependent. For C. macrophylla the best results were obtained with Woody Plant Medium or Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut Medium (DKW). However, for C. aurantium, although high percentages of regenerating explants were obtained independently of the basal medium used, the highest number of buds per regenerating explants was obtained with DKW medium. Attempts were made to identify the type of explants which had a higher regeneration ability using particular regions along the mature shoots of C. macrophylla. When nodal segments, where the buds were completely removed, and internode segments were compared, the highest percentage of responsive explants was obtained with nodal segments. The existence of a morphogenetic gradient along the shoot was observed and the organogenic efficiency was highest when explants from the apical zone were used. Incubation in darkness for 3 or 4 wk was essential for regeneration process in both rootstocks.