In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 107–112 | Cite as

Production of ginsenoside and polysaccharide by two-stage cultivation of Panax quinquefolium L. cells

  • Juan Wang
  • Wen-Yuan GaoEmail author
  • Jian Zhang
  • Bei-Mei Zuo
  • Li-Ming Zhang
  • Lu-Qi Huang


Based on the results of carbon source consumption in cell suspension culture of Panax quinquefolium L., 30 g L−1 sucrose was fed into a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor on day 16 of culture to enhance cell density and metabolite production. Using a fed-batch cultivation strategy, polysaccharide production was enhanced to 1.608 g L−1, which was 1.96-fold greater than with batch cultivation. The maximum saponin yield (7.828 mg L−1) was obtained on day 24 and was about 36% higher than the yields obtained using batch cultivation. In a two-stage culture process, a combined treatment with sucrose, lactoalbumin hydrolysate, and methyl jasmonate caused a significant increase in total saponin yield (31.52 mg L−1) in cell cultures after 27 d. This value represents an increase of 4.03-fold compared with the total saponin yield in fed-batch cultivation. The two-stage culture mode provided the best method for the in vitro production of secondary metabolites from P. quinquefolium.


Panax quinquefolium L. Suspension cell Two-stage cultivation Ginsenoside Polysaccharide 



This research was funded by Science and Technology Commission of Tianjin, China (09ZCKFSH01100).


  1. Ali M. B.; Yu K. W.; Hahn E. J.; Paek K. Y. Differential responses of anti-oxidants enzymes, lipoxygenase activity, ascorbate content and the production of saponins in tissue cultured root of mountain Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer and Panax quinquefolium L. in bioreactor subjected to methyl jasmonate stress. Plant Sci 169: 83–92; 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dewir Y. H.; Chakrabarty D.; Wu C. H.; Hahn E. J.; Jeon W. K.; Paek K. Y. Influences of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on growth and secondary metabolite accumulation in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer adventitious roots cultured in air-lift bioreactors. South African Journal of Botany 76: 354–358; 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gao W. Y.; Jia W.; Duan H. Q.; Xiao P. G. Industrialization of medicinal plant tissue culture. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 28: 385–390; 2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Jeong J. A.; Wu C. H.; Murthy H. N.; Hahn E. J.; Paek K. Y. Application of an airlift bioreactor system for the production of adventitious root biomass and caffeic acid derivatives of Echinacea purpurea. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 14: 91–98; 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kevers C.; Jacques P.; Thonat P.; Gasphar T. H. In vitro root cultures of Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolium. Plant Growth Regul 27: 173–178; 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Loc N. H.; Tuan V. C.; Binh D. H. N. Accumulation of sesquiterpenes and polysaccharides in cells of Zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe) cultured in a 10 L bioreactor. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering 14: 619–624; 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mathur A.; Mathur A. K.; Sangwan R. S.; Gangwar A.; Uniyal G. C. Differential morphogenetic responses, ginsenoside metabolism and RAPD patterns of three Panax species. Genet Resour and Crop Ev 50: 245–252; 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mizukami H.; Tabira Y.; Ellis B. E. Methyl jasmonate-inducedrosmarinic acid biosynthesis in Lithospermum erythrorhizon cell suspension cultures. Plant Cell Rep 12: 706–709; 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Murashige T.; Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15: 473–497; 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Nocerino E.; Amato M.; Izzo A. A. The aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties of ginseng. Fitoterapia 71: s1–s5; 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Oh S. Y.; Wu C. H.; Popova E.; Hahn E. J.; Paek K. Y. Cryopreservation of Panax ginseng adventitious roots. J Plant Biol 52: 348–354; 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pan X. W.; Yang X. L.; Shi Y. Y.; Xu H. H. Cu2+ elicitation enhanced camptothecin biosynthesis in cell suspension cultures of Campototheca acuminata decaisne. Journal of Wuhan Bioengineering Institute 6(1): 084–087; 2010.Google Scholar
  13. Sivakumar G.; Yu K. W.; Paek K. Y. Production of biomass and ginsenosides from adventitious roots of Panax ginseng in bioreactor cultures. Eng Life Sci 5: 333–342; 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Suthar S.; Ramawat K. G. Growth retardants stimulate guggulsterone production in the presence of fungal elicitor in fed-batch cultures of Commiphora wightii. Plant Biotechnol Rep 4: 9–13; 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Tewari R. K.; Hahn E. J.; Paek K. Y. Function of nitric oxide and superoxide anion in the adventitious root development and antioxidant defence in Panax ginseng. Plant Cell Rep 27: 563–573; 2008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Wang J.; Gao W. Y.; Zhang J.; Huang T.; Cao Y.; Zhao Y. X. Dynamic change of metabolites and nutrients in suspension cells of Panax quinquefolium L. in bioreactor. Acta Physiol Plant 32: 463–467; 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wang J.; Gao W. Y.; Zhang J.; Huang T.; Wen T. T.; Huang L. Q. Combination effect of lactoalbumin hydrolysate and methyl jasmonate on ginsenoside and polysaccharide production in Panax quinquefolium L. cells cultures. Acta Physiol Plant 33: 861–866; 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. William A.; John G.; Hendel J. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of ginsenosides of Panax quinquefolium. J Chromatogr 775: 11–17; 1996.Google Scholar
  19. Zhang Z. Y.; Zhong J. J. Scale-up of centrifugal impeller bioreactor for hyperproduction of ginseng saponin and polysaccharide by high-density cultivation of Panax notoginseng cells. Biotechnol. Prog 20: 1076–1081; 2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Zhang Y. H.; Zhong J. J.; Yu J. T. Effect of osmotic pressure on cell growth and production of ginseng saponin and polysaccharide in suspension cultures of Panax notoginseng. Biotechnol Lett 17: 1347–1350; 1995.Google Scholar
  21. Zhang Y. H.; Zhong J. J.; Yu J. T. Effect of nitrogen source on cell growth and production of ginseng saponin and polysaccharide in suspension cultures of Panax notoginseng. Biotechnol Prog 12: 567–571; 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for In Vitro Biology 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan Wang
    • 1
  • Wen-Yuan Gao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jian Zhang
    • 2
  • Bei-Mei Zuo
    • 3
  • Li-Ming Zhang
    • 3
  • Lu-Qi Huang
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Pharmaceutical Science and TechnologyTianjin UniversityTianjinPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Traditional Chinese Materia MedicaTianjin University of Traditional Chinese MedicineTianjinPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Institute of Biological Engineering of Traditional Chinese MedicineTianjin University of Science and TechnologyTianjinPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Institute of Chinese Materia MedicaChina Academy of Chinese Medical SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations