In vitro germination and micropropagation of Givotia rottleriformis Griff.

  • K. Samuel
  • D. Debashish
  • B. Madhumita
  • G. PadmajaEmail author
  • Siva Ram Prasad
  • V. Bhaskara Ramana Murthy
  • P. S. Rao


The propagation of Givotia rottleriformis Griff. is difficult as a result of long seed dormancy associated with poor seed germination. The present study was undertaken to develop a protocol to overcome seed dormancy by culture of zygotic embryo axes and then develop an efficient method for micropropagation of Givotia. Best germination frequency (78.3%) was achieved from mature zygotic embryo axes isolated from acid-scarified fresh seeds when cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (half-strength major salts) with 28.9 μM gibberellic acid (GA3). Efficient plant conversion was achieved by transfer of 10-d-old germinated embryos to MS medium (half-strength major salts) supplemented with 1.2 μM kinetin (KN) and 0.5 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). However, acid scarification of 1-yr-old seeds decreased the germination frequency of zygotic embryo axes in comparison to those obtained from non-acid-scarified seeds which germinated (96.2%) and converted into plants (80.3%) on MS basal (half-strength major salts) medium. Multiple shoot bud induction was achieved by culture of shoot tips derived from in vitro germinated seedlings on MS medium with 0.5 μM thidiazuron for 4 wk, and the shoots elongated after transfer to a secondary medium with 1.2 μM KN. A maximum number of 7.8 shoots per explant with an average shoot length of 3.2 cm was achieved after two subcultures on this medium. The in vitro regenerated shoots rooted (41.5%) on half-strength MS medium with 0.5 μM IBA. The in vitro generated seedlings and micropropagated plants were established in soil with a survival frequency of 70% and 60%, respectively.


Euphorbiaceae Zygotic embryo axes Plant conversion Shoot tip culture Micropropagation 



GP gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance received from the Institute of Life Sciences, Hyderabad and University Grants Commission, New Delhi to carry out this work. We express our thanks to Dr. Vara Prasad, Regional Forest Research Centre, Rajahmundry for permitting us to collect the seeds for the study. We acknowledge UGC-SAP and DST-FIST programmes of School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad for providing infrastructural requirements.


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Copyright information

© The Society for In Vitro Biology 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Samuel
    • 1
  • D. Debashish
    • 1
  • B. Madhumita
    • 1
  • G. Padmaja
    • 1
    Email author
  • Siva Ram Prasad
    • 2
  • V. Bhaskara Ramana Murthy
    • 3
  • P. S. Rao
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Plant Sciences, School of Life SciencesUniversity of HyderabadHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Regional Forest Research CentreRajahmundryIndia
  3. 3.Research and Development Circle, Andhra Pradesh Forest DepartmentHyderabadIndia

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