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Interaction of silver and gold nanoparticles in mammalian cancer: as real topical bullet for wound healing— A comparative study

  • Allur Subramaniyan Sivakumar
  • Chandran Krishnaraj
  • Sunirmal Sheet
  • Dileep Reddy Rampa
  • Da Rae Kang
  • Shah Ahmed Belal
  • Abhay Kumar
  • In Ho Hwang
  • Soon-Il Yun
  • Yang Soo Lee
  • Kwan Seob ShimEmail author
Article

Abstract

The present study evaluates in vitro cytotoxic effects and the mode of interaction of biologically synthesized Ag and Au nanoparticles (NPs) using Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra (BOL) against HT-1080 cancer cells and bacterial cells as well as their wound healing efficacy using a mouse model. UV–visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis have ascertained the formation of nano-sized Ag and Au particles. Fourier transform infrared analysis has confirmed that polyphenol and amide groups in BOL act as capping as well as reducing agents. The free radical scavenging activity under in vitro conditions is found to be higher for the Ag NPs when compared to the Au NPs. Acridine orange–ethidium bromide dual staining and comet assay have indicated that the cytotoxic effects are mediated through nuclear morphological changes and DNA damage. The intracellular localization of Ag and Au NPs in HT-1080 cells and their subsequent effect on apoptosis and necrosis were analyzed by flow cytometry while the mode of interaction was established by scanning electron microscopy under field emission mode and by bio-transmission electron microscopy. These methods of analysis clearly revealed that the Ag and Au NPs have easily entered and accumulated into the cytosol and nucleus, resulting in activation of inflammatory and apoptosis pathways, which in turn cause damage in DNA. Further, mRNA and protein expression of caspase-3 and caspase-7, TNF-α, and NF-κB have provided sufficient clues for induction of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis and inflammatory pathways in Ag NP- and Au NP-treated cells. Evaluation of wound healing properties of Ag and Au NPs using a mouse model indicates rapid healing of wounds. In addition, no clear toxic effects and no nuclear abnormalities in peripheral blood cells are observed. Ag NPs appear to be a better anticancer therapeutic agent than Au NPs. Nonetheless, both Ag NPs and Au NPs show potential for promoting topical wound healing without any toxic effects.

Graphical abstract

Schematic representation of biological synthesis of Ag and Au NPs and its application on cancer and wound healing:

Keywords

Silver Gold Nanoparticles Apoptosis Cancer Wound healing Inflammation Peripheral blood 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The TEM and SEM samples were analyzed using the JEM-2010 (JEOL) installed at the Center for University-Wide Research Facilities (CURF) at Chonbuk National University. We thank Mrs. Eun-Jin Choi at the CURF at Chonbuk National University.

Compliance with ethical standards

All procedures relating to the animals and their care conformed to the international guideline “Principles of Laboratory Animals Care” (NIH Publication No. 85-23, revised 1985).

Supplementary material

11626_2017_150_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (86 kb)
Fig. S1 UV–visible spectra of the biosynthesized Ag NPs and Au NPs observed at 430 nm. Digital photographs showing the (A) leaf extract alone, (B) reddish dark brown color formation of Ag NPs after the addition of 1 mM AgNO3 into the aqueous Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra extract, and (C) light brownish color formation of Au NPs after the addition of 1 mM HAuCl4 into the aqueous plant extract. (JPEG 85 kb)
11626_2017_150_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (173 kb)
Fig. S2 FE-SEM images of the Ag and Au NPs observed after the addition of 1 mM AgNO3 and 1 mM HAuCl4 into the aqueous BOL extract: (a) Ag NPs and (b) Au NPs. (JPEG 173 kb)
11626_2017_150_MOESM3_ESM.jpg (42 kb)
Fig. S3 Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis performed on the biosynthesized Ag and Au NPs: (a) Au NPs and (b) Ag NPs. (JPEG 42 kb)

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Copyright information

© The Society for In Vitro Biology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allur Subramaniyan Sivakumar
    • 1
  • Chandran Krishnaraj
    • 2
  • Sunirmal Sheet
    • 3
  • Dileep Reddy Rampa
    • 4
  • Da Rae Kang
    • 1
  • Shah Ahmed Belal
    • 1
  • Abhay Kumar
    • 5
  • In Ho Hwang
    • 6
  • Soon-Il Yun
    • 2
  • Yang Soo Lee
    • 3
  • Kwan Seob Shim
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Animal BiotechnologyChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and TechnologyChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Wood Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Department of BIN Convergence Technology, College of EngineeringChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.R&D CentreM/s. Eureka Forbes LimitedBangaloreIndia
  6. 6.Department of Animal ScienceChonbuk National UniversityJeonjuRepublic of Korea

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