Seasonal variation of pheophorbide a and flavonoid in different organs of two Carpinus species and its correlation with immunosuppressive activity
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The genus Carpinus of Betulaceae is the most widely distributed in the European landscape. This study reports a comparative study based on the pheophorbide a and flavonoid content from the two main species of the genus Carpinus, Carpinus betulus and Carpinus turczaninowii, respectively, in Nanjing, China. The pheophorbide a and flavonoid content depends on the organ, species, and season. HPLC analysis showed that the pheophorbide a and flavonoid levels were the highest in May and June, respectively, from the leaves of C. betulus ‘Fastigiata.’ In contrast, the content of pheophorbide a and flavonoid in the stems of C. betulus ‘Fastigiata’ or in other species was low. The immunosuppressive effects of the ethyl acetate extracts and methanol extracts from the two Carpinus species were also evaluated. The ethyl acetate extracts of C. betulus ‘Fastigiata’ in May and the methanol extracts of C. betulus ‘Fastigiata’ in June showed better immunosuppressive activity than in other seasons, which coincided with the content of pheophorbide a and flavonoid, respectively. Our findings indicated that C. betulus ‘Fastigiata’ can serve as a medicinal plant against inflammation because of its pheophorbide a and flavonoid content.
KeywordsCarpinus Pheophorbide a Flavonoid Immunosuppressive
This work was supported by The Open Fund of Jiangsu Key Lab of Biomass-based Green Fuels and Chemicals (JSBGFC14013), Jiangsu Province Engineering Technology Research Center Projects (BM2013478), Jiangsu Province Six Big Talent Peak Project (NY-029), and the Fourth Stage Funded Research Projects of 333 in Jiangsu Province. Animal welfare and experimental procedures were carried out strictly in accordance with the guide for the care and use of laboratory animals and the related ethical regulations of Nanjing Forestry University. All efforts were made to minimize animal’s suffering and to reduce the number of animals used.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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