Sustainability Science

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 147–158 | Cite as

Future inclusive wealth and human well-being in regional Japan: projections of sustainability indices based on shared socioeconomic pathways

  • Shinya IkedaEmail author
  • Shunsuke Managi
Special Feature: Original Article Future Scenarios for Socio-Ecological Production Landscape and Seascape
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Special Feature: Future Scenarios for Socio-Ecological Production Landscape and Seascape


This paper evaluates whether future societal trajectories for Japan will occur along sustainable pathways. This work first provides future scenarios for different regions in Japan based on shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Then, we project the inclusive wealth index (IWI) under different future scenarios for 2015–2100. We find that future Japan retains sustainability under all SSPs in 2100 through a comparison with the level of wealth in 2010. However, the trends of IWI per capita are U-shaped, and different regions in Japan will face difficulties caused by unsustainability in the early stages. We also investigate subjective well-being in these projections. Surprisingly, we observe an increase in the well-being index under all SSPs except for SSP5, which focused on promoting economic growth and not on conserving biodiversity. This study provides a framework for evaluating the sustainability of regions, and many indicators are captured in a single index.


Regional Japan Inclusive wealth index Subjective well-being Human health Biodiversity 



We thank the Japanese Ministry of the Environment for financial support through the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (S-15) and Policy Research of Environmental Economics FY2015–2017. In addition, this work was funded by the Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research (26000001) by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. We thank Kei Takahashi for supporting the calculations.

Supplementary material

11625_2018_589_MOESM1_ESM.eps (33 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (EPS 33 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Agriculture, Department of Regional and Comprehensive AgricultureIbaraki UniversityInashikiJapan
  2. 2.Urban Institute and Department of Urban and Environmental EngineeringKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

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