Sustainability Science

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 67–80

How interdisciplinary is sustainability research? Analyzing the structure of an emerging scientific field

  • Ethan D. Schoolman
  • Jeremy S. Guest
  • Kathleen F. Bush
  • Andrew R. Bell
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11625-011-0139-z

Cite this article as:
Schoolman, E.D., Guest, J.S., Bush, K.F. et al. Sustain Sci (2012) 7: 67. doi:10.1007/s11625-011-0139-z


Sustainability research is expected to incorporate concepts, methods, and data from a diverse array of academic disciplines. We investigate the extent to which sustainability research lives up to this ideal of an interdisciplinary field. Using bibliometric data, we orient our study around the “tripartite model” of sustainability, which suggests that sustainability research should draw from the three “pillars” of the environmental, economic, and social sciences. We ask three questions: (i) is sustainability research truly more interdisciplinary than research generally, (ii) to what extent does research grounded in one pillar draw on research from the other two, and (iii) if certain disciplines or pillars are more interdisciplinary than others, then what explains this variation? Our results indicate that sustainability science, while more interdisciplinary than other scientific fields, falls short of the expectations inherent in the tripartite model. The pillar with the fewest articles published on sustainability—economics—is also the most integrative, while the pillar with the most articles—environmental sciences—draws the least from outside disciplines. But interdisciplinarity comes at a cost: sustainability research in economics and the social sciences is centered around a relatively small number of interdisciplinary journals, which may be becoming less valued over time. These findings suggest that, if sustainability research is to live up to its interdisciplinary ideals, researchers must be provided with greater incentives to draw from fields other than their own.


Sustainability science Sustainable Bibliometric Interdisciplinarity Academia Citation analysis 

Supplementary material

11625_2011_139_MOESM1_ESM.doc (88 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 87 kb)

Copyright information

© Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science, United Nations University, and Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ethan D. Schoolman
    • 1
  • Jeremy S. Guest
    • 2
  • Kathleen F. Bush
    • 3
  • Andrew R. Bell
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Sociology, College of Literature, Science, and the ArtsUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public HealthUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Earth InstituteColumbia UniversityPalisadesUSA

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