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Politische Vierteljahresschrift

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 293–321 | Cite as

Individualisierte Wahlkämpfe im Wahlkreis. Eine Analyse am Beispiel des Bundestagswahlkampfes von 2005

  • Thomas Zittel
  • Thomas Gschwend
Abhandlungen

Zusammenfassung

Wahlkämpfe im Wahlkreis stellen einen wichtigen Gegenstand in der neueren Wahl-, Parteien- und Kommunikationsforschung dar. Dort werden sie als adressatenbezogene Strategien politischer Parteien zur effizienten Mobilisierung von Wählerstimmen in zentralisierten und hochtechnisierten Kampagnen gedeutet. Wir schlagen in analytischer Absicht ein anderes Verständnis von lokalen Wahlkämpfen vor. Wir sehen lokale Wahlkämpfe als akteursbezogene Strategie, in der sich die Unabhängigkeit der Kandidaten im Wahlkreis nach amerikanischem Vorbild abzeichnet. Wir kennzeichnen diese Deutung auch mit dem Begriff des individualisierten Wahlkampfes. Wir argumentieren, dass individualisierte Wahlkämpfe einerseits durch die Veränderung von „Wählermärkten“ erklärt werden können und deshalb in den westlichen etablierten Demokratien zunehmend wahrscheinlich werden. Andererseits argumentieren wir, dass wahlsystemische Anreize und damit verbundene Wettbewerbskonstellationen wichtige institutionelle Bestimmungsgründe für individualisierte Wahlkämpfe darstellen. Diese These prüfen wir am Beispiel des deutschen Mischwahlsystems auf der Basis einer schriftlichen Befragung der Kandidaten zur Bundestagswahl von 2005.

Schlagwörter

Wahlkämpfe Wahlsysteme Wählermärkte Parteien Bundestag 

Individualized constituency campaigns in mixed-member electoral systems. The case of the German parliamentary elections in 2005

Abstract

Constituency campaigns are an important subject matter for students of political parties, voting behavior and political communication. In all three fields, constituency campaigns are perceived as elements of centralized high-tech campaigns strategically targeting particular segments in electoral markets. In this paper, we propose an alternative understanding of local campaigns and use the case of the German Parliamentary Elections in 2005 to provide empirical evidence for this view. We analyze constituency campaigns from an actor-centred perspective, which assumes local campaigns to signal independence of individual candidates from their parties. We label this phenomenon individualized campaigning. We argue that individualized campaigning is, on the one hand, driven by changing electoral markets. On the other hand, we argue, however, that electoral incentives and particular types of electoral competitiveness foster individualized constituency campaigning. We test this latter hypothesis with regard to the German mixed-member electoral system and on the basis of a survey of all candidates standing for election in 2005.

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Copyright information

© VS Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Zittel
  • Thomas Gschwend

There are no affiliations available

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