Advertisement

Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 25–44 | Cite as

Die analytische Soziologie: Soziale Mechanismen, DBO-Theorie und Agentenbasierte Modelle

  • Lutz Bornmann
Hauptbeiträge

Zusammenfassung

Mit den Arbeiten von Peter Hedström — Professor an der School of Social Sciences der Singapore Management University — hat sich in den letzten Jahren ein vielversprechender Ansatz in der analytischen Soziologie ergeben, um bei der Untersuchung sozialer Phänomene zu validen Erklärungen zu kommen. Dieser Ansatz wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit vorgestellt und kritisch gewürdigt. Der Ansatz orientiert sich am soziologischen Mikro-Makro-Modell. Mit Hilfe der so genannten DBO-Theorie werden verschiedene soziale Mechanismen auf der Mikro- und Makro-Ebene formuliert, um zu einer hinreichenden Theorie (mittlerer Reichweite) für die Erklärung eines sozialen Phänomens zu kommen. Um die Validität der Theorie zu prüfen, werden Agentenbasierte Modelle berechnet.

Schlüsselwörter

Analytische Soziologie Mikro-Makro-Modell Soziale Mechanismen DBO-Theorie Agentenbasierte Modelle 

The analytical sociology: Social mechanisms, DBO-theory and agent-based modelling

Abstract

Within the analytical sociology, Peter Hedström — professor at School of Social Sciences of the Singapore Management University — developed an approach to come to valid explanations of social phenomena. In this article, his approach will be described and critically assessed. The approach is based on the micro-macro view in sociology. With the assistance of the so called DBO-theory, certain social mechanisms are formulated on the micro- and macro levels to come to a sufficient (middle-range) theory for the explanation of social phenomena. To investigate the validity of the theory, agent-based models are calculated.

Key words

Analytical Sociology Micro-macro Model Social Mechanisms DBO-Theory Agent-based Models 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Bainbridge, William Sims. 2007. The scientific research potential of virtual worlds. Science 317(5837): 472–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borgatti, Stephen P., Ajay Mehra, Daniel J. Brass und Giuseppe Labianca. 2009. Network analysis in the social sciences. Science 323(5916): 892–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boudon, Raymond. 1998. Social mechanisms without black boxes. In: Social mechanisms: an analytical approach to social theory, hrsg. P. Hedström und R. Swedberg, 172–203. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coleman, J. S. 1995. Grundlagen der Sozialtheorie. Handlungen und Handlungssysteme. Bd. 1. München: Oldenbourg.Google Scholar
  5. Cowen, Tyler. 1998. Do economists use social mechanisms to explain? In: Social mechanisms: an analytical approach to social theory, hrsg. P. Hedström und R. Swedberg, 125–146. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Epstein, Joshua M., L. Tesfatsion und K. L. Judd. 2006. Remarks on the foundations of agent-based generative social science. In: Handbook of Computational Economics, 1585–1604. — Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  7. Esser, Hartmut. 1999. Soziologie — allgemeine Grundlagen. 3. Aufl. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.Google Scholar
  8. Evans, James A. 2008. Electronic publication and the narrowing of science and scholarship. Science 321(5887): 395–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Festinger, Leon. 1957. A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.Google Scholar
  10. Gambetta, Diego. 1998. Concatenations of mechanisms. In: Social mechanisms: an analytical approach to social theory, hrsg. P. Hedström und R. Swedberg, 102–124. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Giles, Jim. 2007. Life’s a game. Nature 445(7123): 18–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hedström, P. und R. Swedberg. 1996. Social mechanisms. Acta Sociologica 39(3): 281–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hedström, P. und R. Swedberg. 1998. Social mechanisms: an analytical approach to social theory, Studies in rationality and social change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hedström, Peter. 2005. Dissecting the social: on the principles of analytical sociology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hedström, Peter. 2006. Experimental macro sociology: predicting the next best seller. Science 311 (5762): 786–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hedström, Peter. 2008. Studying mechanisms to strengthen causal inferences in quantitative research. In: The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology, hrsg. J. M. Box-Steffensmeier, H. E. Brady und D. Collier, 319–335. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hedström, Peter und Richard Swedberg. 1998. Social mechanisms: an introductory essay. In: Social mechanisms: an analytical approach to social theory, hrsg. P. Hedström und R. Swedberg, 1–31. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hillmann, Karl-Heinz und Günter Hartfiel. 2007. Wörterbuch der Soziologie. 5. Aufl. Stuttgart: Kroener.Google Scholar
  19. Lewis, K., J. Kaufman, M. Gonzalez, A. Wimmer und N. A. Christakis. 2008. Tastes, ties, and time: a new social network dataset using Facebook.com. Social Networks 30(4): 330–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Macy, M. W. und R. Willer. 2002. From factors to actors: computational sociology and agent-based modeling. Annual Review of Sociology 28: 143–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mahoney, J. 2001. Beyond correlational analysis: recent innovations in theory and method. Sociological Forum 16(3): 575–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mason, Winter A., Frederica R. Conrey und Eliot R. Smith. 2007. Situating social influence processes: dynamic, multidirectional flows of influence within social networks. Personality and Social Psychology Review 11(3): 279–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mayntz, R. 2004. Mechanisms in the analysis of social macro-phenomena. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34(2): 237–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Merton, R. K. 1948. The self-fulfilling prophecy. Antioch Review 8: 193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Merton, R. K. 1968. The Matthew effect in science. Science 159(3810): 56–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Merton, R. K. 1985. Entwicklung und Wandel von Forschungsinteressen. Aufsätze zur Wissenschaftssoziologie. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  27. Merton, Robert K. 1995. Soziologische Theorie und soziale Struktur. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  28. Merton, Robert K. 1996. On social structure and science. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  29. Salganik, Matthew J., Peter Sheridan Dodds und Duncan J. Watts. 2006. Experimental study of inequality and unpredictability in an artificial cultural market. Science 311(5762): 854–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schelling, Thomas C. 1978. Micromotives and macrobehavior. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  31. Simon, Fritz B. 2006. Einführung in Systemtheorie und Konstruktivismus. Heidelberg: Carl Auer.Google Scholar
  32. Smith, E. R. und F. R. Conrey. 2007. Agent-basedmodeling: a new approach for theory building in social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review 11(1): 87–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sorensen, Aage B. 1998. Theoretical mechanisms and the empirical study of social processes. In: Social mechanisms: an analytical approach to social theory, hrsg. P. Hedström und R. Swedberg, 238–266. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Thelwall, Mike. 2008. Social networks, gender, and friending: an analysis of MySpace member profiles. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59(8):1321–1330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thelwall, Mike. 2009. Homophily in MySpace. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60(2): 219–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Watts, Duncan J. 2007. A twenty-first century science. Nature 445(7127): 489–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. White, H. C., S. A. Boorman und R. L. Breiger. 1976. Social-structure from multiple networks: 1. blockmodels of roles and positions. American Journal of Sociology 81(4): 730–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wilensky, U. 2008. NetLogo Segregation model 1997 [cited 14. August 2008]. Available from http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/Segregation.
  39. NetLogo. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© VS Verlag f�r Sozialwissenschaften 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Max-Planck-GesellschaftMünchenDeutschland

Personalised recommendations