Prevalence of Social Determinants of Health and Associations of Social Needs Among United States Adults, 2011–2014

  • Eun Ji KimEmail author
  • Sara Abrahams
  • Omolara Uwemedimo
  • Joseph Conigliaro
Concise Research Report


Social determinants of health (SDHs) are conditions arising from where people are born, live, learn, work, and age and account for 80% of health outcomes.1,2 The prevalence of different SDH has been examined, but most studies used community data or examined one specific SDH need.3,4 To better understand the significance of the SDH at a national level, it is important to examine the prevalence of different SDHs and how individual SDH needs correlate with one another. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we examined the prevalence of low education, low income, no health insurance, food insecurity, poor housing, and limited/no employment individually, and whether the presence of one SDH need is associated with the presence of another.


We used the 2011–2014 NHANES, a biennial nationally representative survey.5 We included all adults 18 years or older (n = 11,977) and excluded 160 participants with invalid/incomplete responses to...


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they do not have a conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of General Internal MedicineDonald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/NorthwellLake SuccessUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsDonald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/NorthwellLake SuccessUSA

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