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Prevalence of Behavioral Health Conditions Across Frequency of Cannabis Use Among Adult Primary Care Patients in Washington State

  • Gwen T. Lapham
  • Amy K. Lee
  • Ryan M. Caldeiro
  • Joseph E. Glass
  • David S. Carrell
  • Julie E. Richards
  • Katharine A. Bradley
Concise Research Reports

Introduction

Cannabis is the third most commonly used drug in the USA, after alcohol and tobacco, and the prevalence of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders (CUD) has doubled in the last decade, due in part to increasingly legalized access.1,2 Individuals who use cannabis have increased risk of behavioral health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and tobacco, alcohol, and other substance use disorders,3, 4, 5 but little is known about the association between frequency of cannabis use and behavioral health conditions among primary care patients. This population-based study of primary care patients6 reports on the prevalence of common behavioral health conditions across cannabis use frequency.

Methods

Study details are described in a prior study of the prevalence of cannabis use in primary care.6Briefly, Kaiser Permanente Washington, a large health system in Washington State where medical and nonmedical cannabis use is legal, implemented annual behavioral health screening,...

KEY WORDS

cannabis primary care screening substance-related disorders depression 

Notes

Authors’ Contributions

Dr. Lapham had full access to all the study data and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: Lapham, Bradley. Statistical analysis: Lapham. Interpretation of results: All authors. Drafting of manuscript: Lapham, Bradley. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.

Funding/Support

Awards from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (UG1DA040314-01S1, UG1 DA01581; NIDA Clinical Trials Network Protocol #0065-OT) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (R18 HS023173) supported study implementation, analysis, and manuscript preparation. JEG was supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (K01AA023859). KAB was supported by K24 AA022128.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they do not have a conflict of interest.

Role of the Sponsor

The sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

References

  1. 1.
    National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Key Substance Use and Mental Health Indicators in the United States: Results from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-FFR1-2016/NSDUH-FFR1-2016.pdf. Accessed 29 May 2018.
  2. 2.
    Hasin DS, Kerridge BT, Saha TD, et al. Prevalence and Correlates of DSM-5 Cannabis Use Disorder, 2012-2013: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. Am J Psychiatry 2016;173(6):588–599.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
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    Pacek LR, Martins SS, Crum RM. The bidirectional relationships between alcohol, cannabis, co-occurring alcohol and cannabis use disorders with major depressive disorder: results from a national sample. J Affect Disord 2013;148(2–3):188–195.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blanco C, Hasin DS, Wall MM, et al. Cannabis Use and Risk of Psychiatric Disorders: Prospective Evidence From a US National Longitudinal Study. JAMA Psychiatry 2016;73(4):388–395.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lev-Ran S, Roerecke M, Le Foll B, George TP, McKenzie K, Rehm J. The association between cannabis use and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychol Med 2014;44(4):797–810.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lapham GT, Lee AK, Caldeiro RM, et al. Frequency of Cannabis Use Among Primary Care Patients in Washington State. J Am Board Fam Med 2017;30(6):795–805.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gwen T. Lapham
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amy K. Lee
    • 1
  • Ryan M. Caldeiro
    • 3
  • Joseph E. Glass
    • 1
    • 4
  • David S. Carrell
    • 1
  • Julie E. Richards
    • 1
    • 2
  • Katharine A. Bradley
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research InstituteSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Health ServicesUniversity of Washington School of Public HealthSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Kaiser Permanente WashingtonSeattleUSA
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  5. 5.Department of Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care SystemHealth Services Research & Development (HSR&D) Denver-Seattle Center of Innovation for Veteran-Centered and Value-Driven CareSeattleUSA
  6. 6.School of Medicine, Department of MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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