Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 33, Issue 8, pp 1276–1282 | Cite as

Impact of Patient-Centered Medical Home Implementation on Diabetes Control in the Veterans Health Administration

  • LeChauncy D. Woodard
  • Omolola E. Adepoju
  • Amber B. Amspoker
  • Salim S. Virani
  • David J. Ramsey
  • Laura A. Petersen
  • Lindsey A. Jones
  • Lea Kiefer
  • Praveen Mehta
  • Aanand D. Naik
Original Research



Given its widespread dissemination across primary care, the Veterans Health Administration (VA) is an ideal setting to examine the impact of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) on diabetes outcomes.


To assess the impact of PCMH implementation on diabetes outcomes among patients receiving care in the Veterans Health Administration.


Retrospective cohort analysis and multilevel logistic regression.


Twenty thousand eight hundred fifty-eight patients in one Midwest VA network who had a diabetes diagnosis in both 2009 and 2012 and who received primary care between October 1, 2008 and September 30, 2009.

Main Measures

Glycemic and lipid control using VA quality indicators [hemoglobin (Hb) A1c < 9%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) < 100 mg/dL].

Key Results

Odds of glycemic control were lower in 2012 than 2009 (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.67–0.77, p  < 0.001), and this change in control over time varied by race (OR of the interaction between time and race = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.02–1.36, p  = 0.028). While the disparity in glycemic control between white and black patients persisted post-PCMH, the magnitude of the disparity was smaller in 2012 compared to 2009 (2012: OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.18–1.47, p  < 0.0001 and 2009: OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.39–1.82, p  < 0.0001). Odds of lipid control did not significantly change between 2009 and 2012 and change did not vary by race and/or gender.


Although there were no significant improvements in odds of lipid control, and odds of glycemic control decreased following PCMH implementation, there was evidence of reduced racial disparities in glycemic control post-PCMH implementation.


diabetes disparities race and ethnicity veterans patient-centered outcomes research 


Funding Information

This work was funded through a contract between VA Network 12 and investigators at the Center for Innovation in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety at the Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center. The funding source had no involvement in any aspect of the study design except the initial research question and was not involved in data collection, analysis, or interpretation. We are grateful to the VA Network 12 for their commission and support of this work and to Mark Kuebeler for his statistical support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

This research was approved by the Baylor College of Medicine Institutional Review Board.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they do not have a conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine (outside the USA) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • LeChauncy D. Woodard
    • 1
    • 2
  • Omolola E. Adepoju
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amber B. Amspoker
    • 1
    • 2
  • Salim S. Virani
    • 1
    • 2
  • David J. Ramsey
    • 1
    • 2
  • Laura A. Petersen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lindsey A. Jones
    • 1
  • Lea Kiefer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Praveen Mehta
    • 3
  • Aanand D. Naik
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness, and Safety, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical CenterHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Baylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Veterans Integrated Service Network 12WestchesterUSA

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