Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 32, Issue 7, pp 767–774 | Cite as

Public Awareness of and Contact With Physicians Who Receive Industry Payments: A National Survey

  • Genevieve Pham-Kanter
  • Michelle M. Mello
  • Lisa Soleymani Lehmann
  • Eric G. Campbell
  • Daniel Carpenter
Original Research



The Physician Payments Sunshine Act, part of the Affordable Care Act, requires pharmaceutical and medical device firms to report payments they make to physicians and, through its Open Payments program, makes this information publicly available.


To establish estimates of the exposure of the American patient population to physicians who accept industry payments, to compare these population-based estimates to physician-based estimates of industry contact, and to investigate Americans’ awareness of industry payments.


Cross-sectional survey conducted in late September and early October 2014, with data linkage of respondents’ physicians to Open Payments data.


A total of 3542 adults drawn from a large, nationally representative household panel.

Main Measures

Respondents’ contact with physicians reported in Open Payments to have received industry payments; respondents’ awareness that physicians receive payments from industry and that payment information is publicly available; respondents’ knowledge of whether their own physician received industry payments.

Key Results

Among the 1987 respondents who could be matched to a specific physician, 65% saw a physician who had received an industry payment during the previous 12 months. This population-based estimate of exposure to industry contact is much higher than physician-based estimates from the same period, which indicate that 41% of physicians received an industry payment. Across the six most frequently visited specialties, patient contact with physicians who had received an industry payment ranged from 60 to 85%; the percentage of physicians with industry contact in these specialties was much lower (35–56%). Only 12% of survey respondents knew that payment information was publicly available, and only 5% knew whether their own doctor had received payments.


Patients’ contact with physicians who receive industry payments is more prevalent than physician-based measures of industry contact would suggest. Very few Americans know whether their own doctor has received industry payments or are aware that payment information is publicly available.


financial conflicts of interest physician-industry relationships industry payments physician payments sunshine act open payments 



We are grateful to the Greenwall Foundation for its financial support of this project. The sponsor played no role in the design or conduct of the study or the interpretation of results. Drs. Campbell, Carpenter, and Lehmann were supported in part by the Edmond J. Safra Foundation through the Harvard University Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics. We thank Charles V. Gray, Alec McQuilkin, and Melanie Mason for research assistance, Wayne Appleton for technical support, Mary Baitinger for administrative assistance, and Wendy Mansfield and Sergei Rodkin at GfK for coordinating the administration of the survey.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not represent the official views of the Veterans Health Administration, the National Center for Ethics in Health Care, or the U.S. government.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they do not have a conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11606_2017_4012_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (132 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 132 kb)


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Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Genevieve Pham-Kanter
    • 1
  • Michelle M. Mello
    • 2
  • Lisa Soleymani Lehmann
    • 3
    • 4
  • Eric G. Campbell
    • 5
  • Daniel Carpenter
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Health Management and Policy, Drexel University Dornsife School of Public Health, and Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Stanford Law School, and Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA
  3. 3.Department of Medicine and Center for Bioethics, Harvard Medical School, and Department of Health Policy and ManagementHarvard T. H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  4. 4.National Center for Ethics in Health CareVeterans Health AdministrationWashingtonUSA
  5. 5.Mongan Institute for Health Policy, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  6. 6.Department of Government and Radcliffe Institute for Advanced StudyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

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