Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 364–387

A Systematic Review of the Extent and Measurement of Healthcare Provider Racism

Review Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11606-013-2583-1

Cite this article as:
Paradies, Y., Truong, M. & Priest, N. J GEN INTERN MED (2014) 29: 364. doi:10.1007/s11606-013-2583-1



Although considered a key driver of racial disparities in healthcare, relatively little is known about the extent of interpersonal racism perpetrated by healthcare providers, nor is there a good understanding of how best to measure such racism.


This paper reviews worldwide evidence (from 1995 onwards) for racism among healthcare providers; as well as comparing existing measurement approaches to emerging best practice, it focuses on the assessment of interpersonal racism, rather than internalized or systemic/institutional racism.


The following databases and electronic journal collections were searched for articles published between 1995 and 2012: Medline, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts. Included studies were published empirical studies of any design measuring and/or reporting on healthcare provider racism in the English language. Data on study design and objectives; method of measurement, constructs measured, type of tool; study population and healthcare setting; country and language of study; and study outcomes were extracted from each study.


The 37 studies included in this review were almost solely conducted in the U.S. and with physicians. Statistically significant evidence of racist beliefs, emotions or practices among healthcare providers in relation to minority groups was evident in 26 of these studies. Although a number of measurement approaches were utilized, a limited range of constructs was assessed.


Despite burgeoning interest in racism as a contributor to racial disparities in healthcare, we still know little about the extent of healthcare provider racism or how best to measure it. Studies using more sophisticated approaches to assess healthcare provider racism are required to inform interventions aimed at reducing racial disparities in health.


healthcare racism bias measurement, systematic review 

Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Faculty of Arts and EducationDeakin UniversityVictoriaAustralia
  2. 2.McCaughey VicHealth Centre for Community Wellbeing, Melbourne School of Population and Global HealthUniversity of MelbourneVictoriaAustralia

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