Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 27, Issue 9, pp 1120–1126 | Cite as

Diet Soft Drink Consumption is Associated with an Increased Risk of Vascular Events in the Northern Manhattan Study

  • Hannah Gardener
  • Tatjana Rundek
  • Matthew Markert
  • Clinton B. Wright
  • Mitchell S. V. Elkind
  • Ralph L. Sacco
Original Research

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Diet and regular soft drinks have been associated with diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, and regular soft drinks with coronary heart disease.

OBJECTIVE

To determine the association between soft drinks and combined vascular events, including stroke.

DESIGN

A population-based cohort study of stroke incidence and risk factors.

PARTICANTS

Participants (N = 2564, 36% men, mean age 69 ± 10, 20% white, 23% black, 53% Hispanic) were from the Northern Manhattan Study.

MAIN MEASURES

We assessed diet and regular soft drink consumption using a food frequency questionnaire at baseline, and categorized: none (<1/month, N = 1948 diet, N = 1333 regular), light (1/month-6/week, N = 453 diet, N = 995 regular), daily (≥1/day, N = 163 diet, N = 338 regular). Over a mean follow-up of 10 years, we examined the association between soft drink consumption and 591 incident vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular death) using Cox models.

KEY RESULTS

Controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI, daily calories, consumption of protein, carbohydrates, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium, those who drank diet soft drinks daily (vs. none) had an increased risk of vascular events, and this persisted after controlling further for the metabolic syndrome, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes, cardiac disease, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia (HR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.06–1.94). There was no increased risk of vascular events associated with regular soft drinks or light diet soft drink consumption.

CONCLUSIONS

Daily diet soft drink consumption was associated with several vascular risk factors and with an increased risk for vascular events. Further research is needed before any conclusions can be made regarding the potential health consequences of diet soft drink consumption.

KEY WORDS

diet epidemiology myocardial infarction stroke cardiovascular disease 

Supplementary material

11606_2011_1968_MOESM1_ESM.doc (70 kb)
ESM 1(DOC 70 kb)

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    Yoshida M, McKeown NM, Rogers G, Meigs JB, Saltzman E, D'Agostino R, Jacques PF. Surrogate markers of insulin resistance are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and fruit juice in middle and older-aged adults. J Nutr. 2007;137:2121–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nguyen S, Choi HK, Lustig RH, Hsu CY. Sugar-sweetened beverages, serum uric acid, and blood pressure in adolescents. J Pediatr. 2009;154:807–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lim S, Zoellner JM, Lee JM, et al. Obesity and sugar-sweetened beverages in African-American preschool children: a longitudinal study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17:1262–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dhingra R, Sullivan L, Jacques PF, et al. Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community. Circulation. 2007;116:480–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lutsey PL, Steffen LM, Stevens J. Dietary intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Circulation. 2008;117:754–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nettleton JA, Lutsey PL, Wang Y, Lima JA, Michos ED, Jacobs DR Jr. Diet soda intake and risk of incident metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Diabetes Care. 2009;32:688–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome. An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Executive summary. Cardiol Rev. 2005;13:322–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Malik S, Wong ND, Franklin SS, Kamath TV, L'Italien GJ, Pio JR, Williams GR. Impact of the metabolic syndrome on mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all causes in United States adults. Circulation. 2004;110:1245–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McNeill AM, Rosamond WD, Girman CJ, et al. The metabolic syndrome and 11-year risk of incident cardiovascular disease in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:385–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, Niskanen LK, Kumpusalo E, Tuomilehto J, Salonen JT. The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men. JAMA. 2002;288:2709–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boden-Albala B, Sacco RL, Lee HS, et al. Metabolic syndrome and ischemic stroke risk: Northern Manhattan Study. Stroke. 2008;39:30–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fung TT, Malik V, Rexrode KM, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Sweetened beverage consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1037–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sacco RL, Boden-Albala B, Abel G, et al. Race-ethnic disparities in the impact of stroke risk factors: the northern Manhattan stroke study. Stroke. 2001;32:1725–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wallman KK, Hodgdon J. Race and ethnic standards for Federal statistics and administrative reporting. Stat Report 1977; 450–4.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sacco RL, Elkind M, Boden-Albala B, et al. The protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption on ischemic stroke. JAMA. 1999;281:53–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sacco RL, Gan R, Boden-Albala B, et al. Leisure-time physical activity and ischemic stroke risk: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study. Stroke. 1998;29:380–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kargman DE, Sacco RL, Boden-Albala B, Paik MC, Hauser WA, Shea S. Validity of telephone interview data for vascular disease risk factors in a racially mixed urban community: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study. Neuroepidemiology. 1999;18:174–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Boden-Albala B, Cammack S, Chong J, et al. Diabetes, fasting glucose levels, and risk of ischemic stroke and vascular events: findings from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS). Diabetes Care. 2008;31:1132–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III) final report. Circulation. 2002;106:3143–421.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Block G, Hartman AM, Dresser CM, Carroll MD, Gannon J, Gardner L. A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing. Am J Epidemiol. 1986;124:453–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fowler SP, Williams K, Resendez RG, Hunt KJ, Hazuda HP, Stern MP. Fueling the obesity epidemic? Artificially sweetened beverage use and long-term weight gain. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:1894–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Davidson TL, Swithers SE. A Pavlovian approach to the problem of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28:933–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schulze MB, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hu FB. Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. JAMA. 2004;292:927–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Coates RJ, Eley JW, Block G, Gunter EW, Sowell AL, Grossman C, Greenberg RS. An evaluation of a food frequency questionnaire for assessing dietary intake of specific carotenoids and vitamin E among low-income black women. Am J Epidemiol. 1991;134:658–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harlan LC, Block G. Use of adjustment factors with a brief food frequency questionnaire to obtain nutrient values. Epidemiology. 1990;1:224–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hannah Gardener
    • 1
  • Tatjana Rundek
    • 1
  • Matthew Markert
    • 1
  • Clinton B. Wright
    • 1
  • Mitchell S. V. Elkind
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ralph L. Sacco
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Evelyn F. McKnight Brain Institute, Department of NeurologyUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyColumbia University College of Physicians and SurgeonsNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyColumbia University Mailman School of Public HealthNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of Epidemiology and Public HealthUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA
  5. 5.Department of Human GeneticsUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations