Predictors of Sustained Walking among Diabetes Patients in Managed Care: The Translating Research into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) Study

  • O. Kenrik Duru
  • Robert B. Gerzoff
  • Arleen F. Brown
  • Andrew J. Karter
  • Catherine Kim
  • David Kountz
  • K. M. Venkat Narayan
  • Stephen H. Schneider
  • Chien-Wen Tseng
  • Beth Waitzfelder
  • Carol M. Mangione
Original Article



Although patients with diabetes may benefit from physical activity, few studies have examined sustained walking in this population.


To examine the factors associated with sustained walking among managed care patients with diabetes.


Longitudinal, observational cohort study with questionnaires administered 2.5 years apart.


Five thousand nine hundred thirty-five patients with diabetes walking at least 20 minutes/day at baseline.


The primary outcome was the likelihood of sustained walking, defined as walking at least 20 minutes/day at follow-up. We evaluated a logistic regression model that included demographic, clinical, and neighborhood variables as independent predictors of sustained walking, and expressed the results as predicted percentages.


The absence of pain was linked to walking behavior, as 62% of patients with new pain, 67% with ongoing pain, and 70% without pain were still walking at follow-up (p = .03). Obese patients were less likely (65%) to sustain walking than overweight (71%) or normal weight (70%) patients (p = .03). Patients ≥65 years (63%) were less likely to sustain walking than patients between 45 and 64 (70%) or ≤44 (73%) years (p = .04). Only 62% of patients with a new comorbidity sustained walking compared with 68% of those who did not (p < .001). We found no association between any neighborhood variables and sustained walking in this cohort of active walkers.


Pain, obesity, and new comorbidities were moderately associated with decreases in sustained walking. Whereas controlled intervention studies are needed, prevention, or treatment of these adverse conditions may help patients with diabetes sustain walking behavior.


sustained walking diabetes patients managed care TRIAD study pain obesity comorbidities 


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Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Kenrik Duru
    • 1
  • Robert B. Gerzoff
    • 2
  • Arleen F. Brown
    • 1
  • Andrew J. Karter
    • 3
  • Catherine Kim
    • 4
  • David Kountz
    • 5
  • K. M. Venkat Narayan
    • 2
    • 6
  • Stephen H. Schneider
    • 7
  • Chien-Wen Tseng
    • 8
    • 10
  • Beth Waitzfelder
    • 8
  • Carol M. Mangione
    • 1
    • 9
  1. 1.David Geffen School of MedicineUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.U.S. Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.The Division of ResearchKaiser PermanenteOaklandUSA
  4. 4.Department of Internal MedicineUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  5. 5.Division of Primary CareUMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolNew BrunswickUSA
  6. 6.Rollins School of Public HealthEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  7. 7.Division of Endocrinology and MetabolismUMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical SchoolNew BrunswickUSA
  8. 8.Pacific Health Research InstituteHonoluluUSA
  9. 9.School of Public HealthUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  10. 10.Department of Family Medicine and Community HealthUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA

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