Journal of General Internal Medicine

, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 749–754 | Cite as

Decreased Awareness of Current Smoking Among Health Care Providers of HIV-positive Compared to HIV-negative Veterans

  • Kristina Crothers
  • Joseph L. Goulet
  • Maria C. Rodriguez-Barradas
  • Cynthia L. Gibert
  • Adeel A. Butt
  • R. Scott Braithwaite
  • Robin Peck
  • Amy C. Justice
Original Article



Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients on combination antiretroviral therapy.


To determine whether awareness of smoking differs between HIV and non-HIV providers, and to identify factors associated with failure to recognize current smoking.


Observational study.


801 HIV-positive and 602 HIV-negative patients, 72 HIV and 71 non-HIV providers enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort 5 Site Study.


Data sources included patient and provider questionnaires; electronic medical records; and the national administrative VA database. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and measures of agreement between patient- and provider-reported smoking, and examined factors associated with failure to recognize current smoking using logistic regression.


Whereas most providers were correct when they identified a patient as a current smoker (specificity ≥90%), HIV providers missed current smoking more often (sensitivity 65% for HIV vs. 82% for non-HIV). Kappa scores for current smoking were significantly lower for HIV compared to non-HIV providers (0.55 vs. 0.75, p < .001). In models adjusted for age, gender, race, and other differences, patient HIV status and provider specialty in infectious diseases were independent predictors of a provider’s failure to recognize current smoking. Comorbid illnesses, cough/dyspnea, degree of immune competence and HIV viral suppression did not impact recognition of current smoking. Only 39% of HIV providers reported confidence in their ability to influence smoking cessation compared to 62% of non-HIV providers (p = .049).


Interventions to increase HIV provider awareness of current smoking and skills to influence smoking cessation are needed. Efforts should also target patient populations with smoking-related comorbid diseases who would especially benefit from smoking cessation.


tobacco detection of smoking HIV smoking cessation 



This study was funded by: National Institutes of Health/National Center for Research Resources (K12 RR0117594-01) (KC); National Institute on Drug Abuse (K23 DA016175-01A1) (AAB); National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (3U01 AA 13566), National Institute on Aging (K23 G00826), Robert Wood Johnson Generalist Faculty Scholar Award, the VHA Office of Research and Development, VHA Public Health Strategic Health Care Group, and an Inter-Agency Agreement between National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Mental Health, and the Veterans Health Administration (ACJ).

Conflicts of Interest

None disclosed.


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Copyright information

© Society of General Internal Medicine 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristina Crothers
    • 1
  • Joseph L. Goulet
    • 2
  • Maria C. Rodriguez-Barradas
    • 3
  • Cynthia L. Gibert
    • 4
  • Adeel A. Butt
    • 5
  • R. Scott Braithwaite
    • 2
  • Robin Peck
    • 4
  • Amy C. Justice
    • 2
  1. 1.Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal MedicineYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, and General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal MedicineYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Medical Service, Infectious DiseasesMichael A. DeBakey VA Medical Center, and Baylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  4. 4.Medical Service, Infectious DiseasesVA Medical Center, and George Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA
  5. 5.Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal MedicineVA Pittsburgh Healthcare System and University of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

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