Pressurized Intraperitoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC) Procedure for Non-resectable Peritoneal Carcinomatosis (with Video)
Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a common evolution of abdominal cancers and is associated with poor prognosis in the absence of aggressive multimodal therapy.1 Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a safe and innovative approach, which enhances the effect of chemotherapy 2 without reported renal/hepatic toxicity.3,4 It requires mastery of technical aspects to reduce postoperative morbidity, increase effectiveness, and prevent caregiver chemotherapy exposure. We, therefore, report herein the surgical protocol after 2 years of implementation in our university center specialized in PC management, accompanied by a short video, to share our experience.
The procedure was performed under general anesthesia and capnoperitoneum (12 mmHg, 37 °C) using two balloon trocars placed in the midline, in accordance with the open laparoscopic technique. Explorative laparoscopy allowed Sugarbaker peritoneal cancer index to be determined. Parietal biopsies were taken, and ascites was removed for peritoneal cytology. The nebulizer was inserted and connected to a high-pressure injector. A pressurized aerosol containing chemotherapy agents was then administered; cisplatin (7.5 mg/m2 in 150 ml 0.9%NaCl) immediately followed by doxorubicin (1.5 mg/m2 in 50 ml 0.9%NaCl), or oxaliplatin alone (92 mg/m2 in 150 ml 0.9%NaCl), based on PC origin and chemotherapy history. The aerosol was kept in a steady-state for 30 min then exhausted through a closed filter system, and trocars were retracted. Each step is illustrated in the video.
This video protocol provides a better understanding of the PIPAC procedure and the safety measures essential for this method of chemotherapy administration. It should help all teams wishing to implement a PIPAC therapy program.
KeywordsSurgical protocol Safety procedure Protective equipment Medical device Peritoneal metastases
The authors would like to thank Dr. Philip Robinson for editing this manuscript and Dr. Michèle Vidal, Dr. Amélie Massardier-Pilonchery, Dr. Nicolas Vantard, Marlene Parisot, Nathalie Vocanson, Salima Zouaoui, Cecile Vidal, Sophie Bidault-Marqués, and Carine Scata for their contributions to the implementation of the PIPAC procedure in our hospital.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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- 2.Solass W, Kerb R, Murdter T, Giger-Pabst U, Strumberg D, Tempfer C, et al. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy of peritoneal carcinomatosis using pressurized aerosol as an alternative to liquid solution: first evidence for efficacy. Annals of surgical oncology. 2014;21(2):553–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar