Oncologic Colorectal Resection, Not Advanced Endoscopic Polypectomy, Is the Best Treatment for Large Dysplastic Adenomas
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- Jang, J.H., Balik, E., Kirchoff, D. et al. J Gastrointest Surg (2012) 16: 165. doi:10.1007/s11605-011-1746-9
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), and partial circumference resection are used for large benign polyps to avoid an “Oncologic” Colorectal Resection (OCR); polyps with invasive cancer require OCR. This review of polyp patients who had OCR was done to stratify polyps into risk groups to guide treatment.
Colonoscopy, operative, and pathology reports of patients with adenoma (+/− dysplasia) who had OCR were reviewed. Polyp size, location, and pathology were assessed.
Three hundred eighty-six polyp patients who had OCR were studied. Polyp locations were: right, 263 (68.1%); transverse, 33 (8.6%); sigmoid, 38 (9.8%); rectum, 23 (6.0%); and multiple sites, 13 (3.4%). The preoperative diagnosis was adenoma for 288 (74.6%) and dysplastic adenoma for 98 patients (25.4%). Final pathology revealed 62 invasive cancers (16.1%); 35% (34 out of 98) with dysplasia preoperatively had cancer versus 9.7% (28 out of 288) with adenoma alone (p < 0.0001). The mean lymph node count was 16.0 ± 10.2. Cancer stage breakdown was: stage 1, 74%; stage 2, 8.1%; stage 3, 16%; and stage 4, 1.6%. The mean benign polyp size was 3.0 ± 1.9 versus 3.9 ± 2.4 cm for malignant polyps (p = 0.0008).
Over one out of three of dysplastic polyps and 10% of adenomas were invasive cancers. OCR is advised for dysplastic polyps; ESD, EMR, and wedge resection are appropriate for non-dysplastic adenomas.