Perioperative Treatment with Infliximab in Patients with Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis is Not Associated with an Increased Rate of Postoperative Complications
- First Online:
- 644 Downloads
The impact of infliximab (IFX) on postoperative complications in surgical patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is unclear. We examined a large patient cohort to clarify whether a relationship exists between IFX and postoperative complications.
A total of 413 consecutive patients—188 (45.5%) with suspected CD, 156 (37.8%) with UC, and 69 (16.7%) with indeterminate colitis—underwent abdominal surgery at the Massachusetts General Hospital between January 1993 and June 2007. One hundred one (24.5%) had received preoperative IFX ≤ 12 weeks before surgery. These patients were compared to those who did not receive IFX with respect to demographics, comorbidities, presence of preoperative infections, steroid use, and nutritional status. We then compared the cumulative rate of complications for each group, which included deaths, anastomotic leak, infection, thrombotic complications, prolonged ileus/small bowel obstruction, cardiac, and hepatorenal complications. Potential risk factors for infectious complications including preexisting infection, pathological diagnosis, and steroid or IFX exposure were further evaluated using logistic regression analysis.
Patients were similar with respect to gender (IFX = 40.6% men vs. non-IFX = 51.9%, p = 0.06), age (36.1 years vs.37.8, p = 0.43), Charlson Comorbidity Index (5.3 vs. 5.7, p = 0.25), concomitant steroids (75.3% vs. 76.9%, p = 0.79), preoperative albumin level (3.3 vs. 3.2, p = 0.36), and rate of emergent surgery (3.0% vs. 3.5%, p = 1.00). IFX patients had higher rates of CD (56.4% vs. 41.9%, p = 0.02), concomitant azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine use (34.6% vs. 16.6%, p < 0.0001), and lower rates of intra-abdominal abscess (3.9% vs. 11%, p < 0.05). After surgery, the two groups had similar rates of death (2% vs. 0.3% p = 0.09), anastomotic leak (3.0% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.97), cumulative infections (5.97% vs. 10.1%, p = 1), thrombotic complications (3.6% vs. 3.0%, p = 0.06), prolonged ileus/small bowel obstructions (3.9 vs. 2.8, p = 0.59), cardiac complications (1% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.42), and hepatic or renal complications (1.0 vs. 0.6% p = 0.72). A logistic regression model was then created to assess the impact of IFX, as well as other potential risk factors, on the rates of cumulative postoperative infections. We found that steroids (odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, p = 0.74), IFX (OR 2.5, p = 0.14), preoperative diagnosis of CD (OR = 0.7, p = 0.63) or UC (OR = 0.6, p = 0.48), and preoperative infection (OR = 1.2, p = 0.76) did not affect rates of clinically important postoperative infections.
Preoperative IFX was not associated with an increased rate of cumulative postoperative complications.
KeywordsInfliximab Crohn’s disease Ulcerative colitis Postoperative complications
- 1.Remicade Package Insert. http://www.remicade.com/remicade/assets/HCP-PPI.pdf
- 3.Sands BE, Blank MA, Diamond RH, Barrett JP, Van Deventer SJ. Maintenance infliximab does not result in increased abscess development in fistulizing Crohn’s disease: results from the ACCENT II study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;23(8):1127–1136. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.02878.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Colombel JF, Loftus EV Jr, Tremaine WJ, et al. Early postoperative complications are not increased in patients with Crohn’s disease treated perioperatively with infliximab or immunosuppressive therapy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004;99(5):878–883. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.04148.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Dixon WG, Watson K, Lunt M, Hyrich KL, Silman AJ, Symmons DP. Rates of serious infection, including site-specific and bacterial intracellular infection, in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54(8):2368–2376. doi:10.1002/art.21978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.den Broeder AA, Creemers MC, Fransen J, et al. Risk factors for surgical site infections and other complications in elective surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with special attention for anti-tumor necrosis factor: a large retrospective study. J Rheumatol. 2007;34(4):689–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar