Curative Laparoscopic Resection for Pancreatic Neoplasms: A Critical Analysis from a Single Institution
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Laparoscopic pancreatic surgery (LPS) has seen significant development but much of the knowledge refers to small and benign pancreatic tumors. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and long-term outcome of the laparoscopic approach in patients with benign, premalignant, and overt malignant lesions of the pancreas. This study, currently, is the largest single center experience worldwide. One hundred twenty-three consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic pancreatic surgery from April 1998 to April 2007, 20 patients with cysts or pseudocysts for acute and chronic pancreatitis, laparoscopic pancreatic drainage was performed, and were excluded from the analysis. The 103 patients were divided based on preoperative diagnosis: group I, inflammatory tumors for chronic pancreatitis (eight patients); group II, cystic pancreatic neoplasms (29 patients); group III, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (10 patients); group IV, neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors (NETs) (43 patients); and group V ductal adenocarcinoma (13 patients). The median tumor size was 5.3 cm. Pathologic data include R 0 or R 1 resection (transection margins on the specimen were inked). Perioperative data, postoperative complications, and resection modalities were compared using statistical analysis. Long-term outcomes were analysed by tumor recurrence and patient survival. The overall conversion rate was 7%. Laparoscopic distal pancreatic resection was performed in 82 patients (79.6%). Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (Lap SPDP) was performed in 52 patients (63.7%), but with splenic vessels preservation in 22% and without splenic vessels preservation in 41.5%. Laparoscopic en-bloc splenopancreatectomy (Lap SxDP) was performed in 30 patients (36.6%) and laparoscopic enucleation (Lap En) in 20 patients (19.4%). There was no mortality. The overall complication rate was 25.2, 16.7, and 40% after Lap SPDP, Lap SxDP, and Lap En, respectively. The overall morbidity rate was significantly higher (p > 0.05) in the group of Lap SPDP without splenic vessels preservation comparing with Lap SPDP with splenic vessels preservation because of the occurrence of splenic complications (20.6%). The overall pancreatic fistulas was 7.7, 10, and 35% after Lap SPDP, Lap SxDP, and Lap En, respectively; the severity of fistula was significantly higher in the Lap En group (p > 0.05). The mean hospital stay was within 1 week in all groups, except in the group of ductal adenocarcinoma, which is 8 days. In this series, 27 patients (26.2%) had malignant disease. R 0 resection was achieved in 90% of ductal adenocarcinoma and 100% for other malignant tumors. The median survival for ductal adenocarcinoma patients was 14 months. This series demonstrates that LPS is feasible and safe in benign-appearing and malignant lesions of the pancreas.
KeywordsLaparoscopic pancreatic surgery Laparoscopic pancreatic malignancies Laparoscopic neuroendocrine tumors Laparoscopic cystic neoplasms Laparoscopic pancreatic techniques Laparoscopic pancreatic complications
We thank Tom Gorey Professor of Surgery in Dublin (Ireland) for the article preparation.
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