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PET and SPECT imaging of the brain: a review on the current status of nuclear medicine in Japan

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Abstract

Radiolabeled tracers allow visualization of not only perfusion, but receptors, function, and metabolism as well. Although spatial resolution is lower than that of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have great potential for target-specific imaging. In this review, we discuss several SPECT and PET tracers used in brain imaging, specifically focusing on tracers currently available, or developed, in Japan. Several important and sophisticated methods exist for analysis of brain PET and SPECT images. Two of them, quantitative cerebral blood flow measurement and voxel-based statistical analysis are discussed in this review. The former method, which employs acetazolamide loading, is useful for evaluation of the brain perfusion reserve for ischemic brain diseases. The latter is useful in diagnosing dementing diseases. Additionally, great strides have been made in the development of the technology used in the scanners. New SPECT systems based on cadmium–zinc–telluride, PET/MRI, and semiconductor PET/CT may provide higher spatial resolution with an acquisition time shorter than ever before. Such developments of both tracers and scanners can be integrated for unprecedented imagery of the brain, providing valuable insight into underlying causes of some fatal brain disorders.

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Acknowledgements

This paper is based on the author’s lecture at Korea and Japan Symposium “Brain circulation, conduction and connection; this is how we visualize it and we do it damn good!” at the 78th annual meeting of the Japan Radiological Society, which was held in April 11–14, 2019 at Yokohama, Japan.

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Correspondence to Tomohiro Kaneta.

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Kaneta, T. PET and SPECT imaging of the brain: a review on the current status of nuclear medicine in Japan. Jpn J Radiol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11604-019-00901-8

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Keywords

  • PET
  • SPECT
  • Brain
  • Japan