Japanese Journal of Radiology

, Volume 33, Issue 7, pp 404–409 | Cite as

Effect of transcatheter arterial embolization with a mixture of n-butyl cyanoacrylate, lipiodol, and ethanol on the vascular wall: macroscopic and microscopic studies

  • Fumihiro Tanaka
  • Nobuyuki Kawai
  • Morio SatoEmail author
  • Hiroki Minamiguchi
  • Motoki Nakai
  • Kohei Nakata
  • Hiroki Sanda
  • Tetsuo Sonomura
  • Ibu Matuzaki
  • Shinichi Murata
Original Article



To compare the pathologic effect of a mixture of n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA), lipiodol, and ethanol (NLE) with a mixture of NBCA and lipiodol (NL) on the embolized vascular wall.

Materials and methods

Embolization was performed using four swine with NBCA and lipiodol in a volume ratio of 1:1 (NL11group) in the common hepatic artery (n = 1) and the internal iliac artery (n = 2); and with NBCA, lipiodol, and ethanol in a volume ratio of 1:1:2 (NLE112 group) in the common hepatic artery (n = 3) and the internal iliac artery (n = 6).


NL11 casts had an intricate appearance in reticular configuration with red thrombus, while NLE112 casts presented in a single round configuration with surrounding ring-like red thrombus. Desquamation of endothelial cells and infiltration of neutrophils into the adventitial layer were found in all embolized vessels in both groups. Infiltration of neutrophils into the intermediate layer was found in the NL11 group but not in the NLE112 group.


The damage to the vascular wall caused by NLE112 was milder than that by NL11, implying the adverse effects of NLE112 are within tolerable limits.


Transcatheter arterial embolization n-Butyl cyanoacrylate Lipiodol Ethanol Pathological effect 


Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflict of interest to declare. The authors have no personal, financial or institutional interest in any of the drugs, materials, or devices documented in this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Japan Radiological Society 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fumihiro Tanaka
    • 1
  • Nobuyuki Kawai
    • 1
  • Morio Sato
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hiroki Minamiguchi
    • 1
  • Motoki Nakai
    • 1
  • Kohei Nakata
    • 1
  • Hiroki Sanda
    • 1
  • Tetsuo Sonomura
    • 1
  • Ibu Matuzaki
    • 2
  • Shinichi Murata
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyWakayama Medical UniversityWakayamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of 2nd PathologyWakayama Medical UniversityWakayamaJapan

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