Apparent diffusion coefficient is a prognostic factor of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy
- 269 Downloads
To evaluate the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with radiotherapy.
Materials and methods
We retrospectively studied 41 patients (38 male and 3 female, ages 37–85 years) diagnosed with HNSCC (14 oropharynx, 22 hypopharynx, 4 larynx, 1 oral cavity) and treated with radiotherapy, with radiation dose to gross tumor volume over 60 Gy. The association between age, gender, performance status, tumor location, T stage, N stage, stage, dose, overall treatment time, treatment method, adjuvant therapy, or ADC and prognosis was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazard test.
ADC calculated with b-values of 300, 500, 750, and 1,000 s/mm2 (ADC 300–1,000) alone showed a significant correlation with all of the analyses (p = 0.022 for local control, p = 0.0109 for regional control, p = 0.0041 for disease-free survival, and p = 0.0014 for overall survival). ADC calculated with b-values of 0, 100, and 200 s/mm2 (ADC 0–200) showed a significant correlation with overall survival (p = 0.0012). N stage showed a significant correlation with regional control (p = 0.0241). Performance status showed significant association with local control (p = 0.0459), disease-free survival (p = 0.023), and overall survival (p = 0.0151), respectively.
ADC is an independent predictor of prognosis in HNSCC treated with radiotherapy.
KeywordsApparent diffusion coefficient Bystander effect Head and neck cancer Prognosis Radiotherapy
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 12.Mardor Y, Pfeffer R, Spiegelmann R, Roth Y, Maier SE, Nissim O, et al. Early detection of response to radiation therapy in patients with brain malignancies using conventional and high b-value diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(6):1094–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Kim S, Loevner L, Quon H, Sherman E, Weinstein G, Kilger A, et al. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for predicting and detecting early response to chemoradiation therapy of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15(3):986–94.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Galban CJ, Mukherji SK, Chenevert TL, Meyer CR, Hamstra DA, Bland PH, et al. A feasibility study of parametric response map analysis of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans of head and neck cancer patients for providing early detection of therapeutic efficacy. Transl Oncol. 2009;2(3):184–90.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Hatakenaka M, Nakamura K, Yabuuchi H, Shioyama Y, Matsuo Y, Ohnishi K, et al. Pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficient of the primary lesion correlates with local failure in head-and-neck cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81(2):339–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Hatakenaka M, Shioyama Y, Nakamura K, Yabuuchi H, Matsuo Y, Sunami S, et al. Apparent diffusion coefficient calculated with relatively high b-values correlates with local failure of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy. Am J Neuroradiol. 2011;32(10):1904–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Vandecaveye V, Dirix P, De Keyzer F, Op de Beeck K, Vander Poorten V, Hauben E, et al. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging early after chemoradiotherapy to monitor treatment response in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82(3):1098–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Ohnishi K, Shioyama Y, Hatakenaka M, Nakamura K, Abe K, Yoshiura T, et al. Prediction of local failures with a combination of pretreatment tumor volume and apparent diffusion coefficient in patients treated with definitive radiotherapy for hypopharyngeal or oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. J Radiat Res. 2011;52(4):522–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Hatakenaka M, Shonai T, Aratani K, Onodera M, Nakamura K, Yabuuchi H, et al. The calculation method of ADC affects the correlation between prognosis and ADC (in Japanese). Jpn J Magn Reson Med. 2012;32(Supplement):327. http://www.jsmrm.jp/modules/en/index.php?content_id=1.Google Scholar