Cutaneous complications after transcatheter arterial treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma via the internal mammary artery: how to avoid this complication
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To lower the rate of cutaneous complications after transcatheter arterial treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via the internal mammary artery (IMA) we retrospectively assessed the complications.
Materials and methods
We reviewed cutaneous complications in 14 patients with 18 HCCs who had undergone 17 treatment procedures via the IMA, including selective transcatheter arterial infusion chemotherapy with Lipiodol (Lip-TAI) (n = 3), selective Lip-TAI + transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) (n = 3), nonselective Lip-TAI (n = 1), nonselective Lip-TAI + TAE (n = 5), and nonselective TAE (n = 5). The filling and nonfilling of subcutaneous vessels with Lipiodol was examined on postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans.
Skin rash (n = 3) and ulceration (n = 1) occurred after 4 of 17 (24%) procedures: two of three selective Lip-TAI procedures and two of five nonselective Lip-TAI + TAE procedures. The doses of chemotherapeutic agents for tumor sizes in selective Lip-TAI procedures were higher than those in selective Lip-TAI + TAE procedures. Cutaneous complications were encountered after two of three procedures with filling but not after any of eight procedures without filling.
A lower dose of chemotherapeutic agents may be less risky when undertaking a selective procedure via the IMA for HCC. If nonselective, TAE alone may be less risky. Postoperative CT may be helpful for predicting cutaneous complications.
Key wordsInternal mammary artery Hepatocellular carcinoma Chemoembolization Complication Cutaneous
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