Acta Geophysica

, Volume 67, Issue 6, pp 1625–1636 | Cite as

Analysis of monthly streamflow series of the Litani River (Lebanon) by using spectral and topological methods

  • Amin Shaban
  • Nabil Amacha
  • Talal Darwich
  • Luciano TelescaEmail author
Research Article - Hydrology


This study aims at investigating several dynamical parameters of the monthly variability of eight streamflow time series, recorded at different stations along the major courses and springs of the Litani River (Lebanon). The contribution of the annual periodicity to the total variance of the series depends on the geomorphological characteristics of the measuring sites. The long-term trend of five northern stations is more or less uniform, while that of the remaining southern three is characterized by a decreasing behaviour. The long-term trend of each streamflow series is, furthermore, featured by the presence of several peaks, mostly due to extreme rainfall events. Applying to the long-term trends the horizontal visibility graph, it was found that the North Atlantic Oscillation index could be a significant forcing of the complex fluctuations of the streamflows.


Annual discharge Flow meter Time series Perennial stream Lebanon 



The present study was performed thanks to the National Council for Scientific Research in Lebanon (CNRS-L) and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche in Italy (CNR) for funding the Common Project of CNR-CNRS Program.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary file1 (PDF 305 kb)
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Supplementary file2 (PDF 382 kb)
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Supplementary file5 (PDF 538 kb)


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Copyright information

© Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences & Polish Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amin Shaban
    • 1
  • Nabil Amacha
    • 2
  • Talal Darwich
    • 1
  • Luciano Telesca
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.National Council for Scientific ResearchBeirutLebanon
  2. 2.Faculty of SciencesLebanese UniversityBeirutLebanon
  3. 3.Istituto di Metodologie per l’Analisi AmbientaleConsiglio Nazionale Delle RicercheTitoItaly

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