Advertisement

Acta Geophysica

, Volume 66, Issue 6, pp 1413–1433 | Cite as

The investigation of soil–structure resonance of historical buildings using seismic refraction and ambient vibrations HVSR measurements: a case study from Trabzon in Turkey

  • Ali Erden BabacanEmail author
  • Özgenç Akın
Research Article - Applied Geophysics
  • 171 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, two different historical structures built in Trabzon have been processed by ambient vibrations and seismic refraction measurements. One of the investigated historical structures is the Atatürk Pavilion built in the nineteenth century, and the other one is Hagia Sophia which was built in the thirteenth century. These two buildings are among the most important historical buildings in Trabzon and are very important for the tourism of the city. In order to determine peak/s frequency and amplitude from the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (HVSRs), we have performed several measurements of ambient vibrations both inside (at different floors) and outside (on the ground) of structures. We have also conducted seismic prospecting to evaluate the vertical 1D and 2D profile of longitudinal and shear seismic waves, Vp and Vs, respectively. To this purpose, we have performed seismic refraction tomography and MASW. Ambient vibrations and seismic measurements were compared with each other. The results show that average predominant frequencies and HVSR amplitudes of inside and outside of Atatürk Pavilion are 4.0 Hz, 7.8 Hz and 2.6, 2.3, respectively. The Vp values vary from 300 to 2070 m/s, and the Vs for maximum effective depth is up to 790 m/s in Atatürk Pavilion. On the other hand, average predominant frequencies and HVSR amplitudes of inside and outside of Hagia Sophia and its tower are 4.7, 4.4 and 2.4 Hz and 1.6, 1.8 and 6.9, respectively. Vp values range from 450 to 2200 m/s, and Vs for maximum effective depth is also up to 1000 m/s in Hagia Sophia. The frequency values (F0 = Vs/4 h) calculated from the velocities up to the maximum effective depth for Atatürk Pavilion are in good agreement with the predominant frequency values determined from ambient vibrations. Atatürk Pavilion and Hagia Sophia soils have been classed according to Eurocode 8 by using VS30 values. The class was defined as “B.” Moreover, the bedrock in studied area is basalt. The high Vp and Vs values are also compatible with the lithology. The HVSR curves measured at the Hagia Sophia show the presence of clear peaks when compared to the Atatürk Pavilion. At the same time, there are marked velocity changes in the Vs sections calculated in both areas. As a result, in both areas there are significant impedance contrasts in the subsoil. However, this impedance contrast is more evident in Hagia Sophia. This could be also compatible with a lithological transition. The possible soil–structure interaction was investigated by using all the results and evaluated in terms of resonance risk. It is thought that the probability of resonance risk at Atatürk Pavilion is low according to the ambient vibrations measurements. However, resonance risk should be taken into consideration at Hagia Sophia site since the predominant frequency values are very close to each other. Finally, this site should be investigated in detail and necessary precautions should be taken against the risk of resonance.

Keywords

Historical structures Ambient vibrations Seismic refraction tomography MASW 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the Ortahisar District Governorate and Trabzon Metropolitan Municipality for their precious helps. The authors would like to thank students of Geophysical Engineering Department for their help in field measurements. We also thank Dr. Koichi Hayashi for his help joint inversion of the H/V and dispersion curves. We would like to thanks Dr. Marta Pischiutta, other reviewer and editor for their helpful suggestions and comments.

References

  1. Akin O, Sayil N (2016) Site characterization using surface wave methods in the Arsin-Trabzon province, NE Turkey. Environ Earth Sci 75:72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anbazhagan P, Sitharam TG, Vipin KS (2009) Site classification and estimation of surface level seismic hazard using geophysical data and probabilistic approach. J Appl Geophys 68:219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arslan M, Tüysüz N, Korkmaz S, Kurt H (1997) Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Eastern Pontide volcanic rocks, Northeast Turkey. Chem Erde 57:157–187Google Scholar
  4. Arslan M, Kadir S, Abdioğlu E, Kolayli H (2006) Origin and formation of kaolin minerals in saprolite of Tertiary alkaline volcanic rocks Eastern Pontides (NE Turkey). Clay Miner 41:597–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azwin IN, Saad R, Nordiana M (2013) Applying the seismic refraction tomography for site characterization. In: 4th international conference on environmental science and development, ICESD 2013. APCBEE Procedia, vol 5, pp 227–231Google Scholar
  6. Bard PY (1998) Microtremor measurements: a tool for site effect estimation? In: Second international symposium on the effects of surface geology on seismic motion. ESG98, JapanGoogle Scholar
  7. Bektaş O, Yılmaz C, Taslı K, Akdağ K, Özgür S (1995) Cretaceous rifting of the Eastern Pontides carbonate platform (NE Turkey): the formation of the carbonate breccias and turbidites as evidence of a drowned platform. G Geol 57(1–2):233–244Google Scholar
  8. Bishop TN, Bube KP, Cutler RT, Langan RT, Love PL, Resnick JR, Shuey RT, Spindler DA, Wyld HW (1985) Tomographic determination of velocity and depth in laterally varying media. Geophysics 50:903–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Büyüksaraç A, Bektaş Ö, Yılmaz H, Arısoy MO (2013) Preliminary seismic microzonation of Sivas city (Turkey) using microtremor and refraction microtremor (ReMi) measurements. J Seismol 17:425–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. CEN (2003) prEN 1998-1-Eurocode 8: design of structures for earthquake resistance—part 1: general rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings. Draft no. 6, Doc CEN/TC250/SC8/N335, Jan 2003, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  11. Chatelain JL, Guillier B, Cara F, Duval AM, Atakan K, Bard PY (2008) Evaluation of the influence of experimental conditions on HVSR results from ambient noise recordings. Bull Earthq Eng 6:33.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-007-9040-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eker AM (2009) Determination of the dynamic characteristics and local site conditions of the Plio–Quaternary sediments situated towards the North of Ankara through surface wave testing methods. Master thesis, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical UniversityGoogle Scholar
  13. Gedikoğlu A, Pelin S, Özsayar T (1979) The main lines of geotectonic development of the East Pontids in Mesozoic age. In: Proceeding of the 1st Geological Congress of the Middle East, pp 555–580Google Scholar
  14. Geometrics Inc. (2009) SeisImager/2D software manual. http://www.geometrics.com. Accessed 1 Dec 2017
  15. Geometrics Inc. (2016) SeisImager/SW-Pro manualGoogle Scholar
  16. Gilbert P (1972) Iterative methods for the three-dimensional reconstruction of an object from projections. J Theor Biol 36:105–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gosar A, Rošer J, Motnikar BŠ, Zupancic P (2010) Microtremor study of site effects and soil–structure resonance in the city of Ljubljana (Central Slovenia). Bull Earthq Eng 8:571–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guillier B, Atakan K, Chatelain JL, Havskov J, Ohrnberger M, Cara F, Duval AM, Zacharopoulos S, Costa PT, Team TS (2008) Influence of instruments on the HVSR spectral ratios of ambient vibrations. Bull Earthq Eng 6:3.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-007-9039-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Güven İH (1993) Doğu Pontidlerin jeolojisi ve 1/250.000 ölçekli kompilasyonu. MTA Yayınları, Ankara, Turkiye (in Turkish) Google Scholar
  20. Hadianfard MA, Rabiee R, Sarshad A (2017) Assessment of vulnerability and dynamic characteristics of a historical building using microtremor measurements. Int J Civ Eng 15:175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hailemikael S, Milana G, Cara F, Vassallo M, Pischiutta M, Amoroso S, Bordoni P, Cantore L, Giulio GD, Naccio DD, Famiani D, Mercuri A (2017) Sub-surface characterization of the Amphiteatrum Flavium area (Rome, Italy) through single-station ambient vibration measurements. Ann Geophys 60:4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hayashi K (2003) Data acquisition and analysis of active and passive surface wave methods. In: SAGEEP 2003, short courseGoogle Scholar
  23. Hayashi K (2008) Development of surface-wave methods and its application to site investigations. Phd thesis, Kyoto UniversityGoogle Scholar
  24. Hayashi K (2012) Analysis of surface-wave data including higher modes using the genetic algorithm. In: GeoCongress 2012. American Society of Civil Engineers, pp 2776–2785Google Scholar
  25. Hayashi K, Takahashi T (2001) High resolution seismic refraction method using surface and borehole data for characterization of rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 38:807–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Herak M (2011) Overview of recent ambient noise measurements in Croatia in free-field and in buildings. Geofizika 28:21–40Google Scholar
  27. Junior SBL, Prado RL, Mendes RM (2012) Application of multichannel analysis of surface waves method (MASW) in an area susceptible to landslide at Ubatuba City, Brazil. Rev Bras Geofis 30(2):213–224Google Scholar
  28. Kanai K, Tanaka AT (1961) On microtremors VII. Bull Earthq Res Inst 39:97–114Google Scholar
  29. Konno K, Ohmachi T (1998) Ground-motion characteristics estimated from spectral ratio between horizontal and vertical components. Bull Seismol Soc Am 88(1):228–241Google Scholar
  30. Kržan M, Gostic S, Bosiljkov V (2015) Application of different in situ testing techniques and vulnerability assessment of Kolizej palace in Ljubljana. Bull Earthq Eng 13:389–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lehmann B (2007) Seismic traveltime tomography for engineering and exploration applications. EAGE Publications, AmsterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nakamura Y (1989) A method for dynamic characteristics estimation of sub-surface using microtremor on the ground surface. Q Rep Railw Tech Res Inst 30(1):25–33Google Scholar
  33. Pamuk E, Akgun M, Ozdag OC, Gonenc T (2017) 2D soil and engineering-seismic bedrock modeling of eastern part of Izmir inner bay/Turkey. J Appl Geophys 137:104–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Park CB, Miller RD, Xia J (1999) Multi-channel analysis of surface waves. Geophysics 64(3):800–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pischiutta M, Villani F, D’Amico S, Vassallo M, Cara F, Di Naccio D, Farrugia D, Di Giulio G, Amoroso S, Cantore L, Mercuri A, Famiani D, Galea P, Akinci A, Rovelli A (2017) Results from shallow geophysical investigations in the northwestern sector of the island of Malta. Phys Chem Earth 98:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rahman MZ, Siddiqua S, Maksud Kamal ASM (2016) Shear wave velocity estimation of the near-surface materials of Chittagong City, Bangladesh for seismic site characterization. J Appl Geophys 134:210–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. SESAME (2004) Guidelines for the implementation of the HVSR spectral ratio technique on ambient vibrations: measurements, processing and interpretation. http://sesame-p5.obs.ujfgrenoble.fr/Delivrables/Del-D23HVUserGuidelines.pdf. Accessed 1 Jan 2018
  38. Sharma PV (1997) Environmental and engineering geophysics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sheehan J, Doll W, Mandell W (2005) An evaluation of methods and available software for seismic refraction tomography analysis. J Environ Eng Geophys 10:21–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Suzuki H, Yamanaka H (2010) Joint inversion using earthquake ground motion records and microtremor survey data to S-wave profile of deep sedimentary layers. BUTSURI-TANSA 65:215–227 (in Japanese) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Trupti S, Srinivas KNSSS, Kishore PP, Seshunarayana T (2012) Site characterization studies along coastal Andhra Pradesh—India using multichannel analysis of surface waves. J Appl Geophys 79:82–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. URL-4 (2012) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagia_Sophia,_Trabzon. Accessed 3 Apr 2012
  43. Wathelet M, Jongmans D, Ohrnberger M (2004) Surface wave inversion using a direct search algorithm and its application to ambient vibration measurements. Near Surf Geophys 2:211–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xia J (2014) Estimation of near-surface shear-wave velocities and quality factors using multichannel analysis of surface-wave methods. J Appl Geophys 103:140–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xia J, Miller RD, Park CB (1999) Estimation of near-surface shear-wave velocity by inversion of Rayleigh wave. Geophysics 64(3):691–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Xia J, Miller RD, Park CB (2004) Utilization of high- frequency Rayleigh waves in near-surface geophysics. Lead Edge 23(8):753–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang J, Toksoz M (1998) Nonlinear refraction traveltime tomography. Geophysics 63(5):1726–1737CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences & Polish Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geophysics EngineeringKaradeniz Technical UniversityTrabzonTurkey

Personalised recommendations