Advertisement

Current Medical Science

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 291–297 | Cite as

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms, Parenting Stress and Social Support in Chinese Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Xiao-qian Huang
  • Hong ZhangEmail author
  • Shan Chen
Article
  • 22 Downloads

Summary

Although little is known about the current situation regarding autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in mainland China, psychiatric disorders are common among Chinese mothers of preschool children with ASD. Previous studies showed ASD child’s behavioral symptoms, maternal anxiety, and maternal depressive symptoms were associated with overall parenting stress in northern China. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed medical records at the hospital related to neuropsychiatric symptoms, parenting stress and social support in mothers of children with ASD from southern China. A total of 80 mothers of children with ASD were screened. Among them, 34 mothers were in low-functioning ASD group (L-ASD group) and 46 mothers were in high-functioning ASD group (H-ASD group). Identification of the ASD cases was confirmed with a Revised Autism Diagnostic Inventory. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, parenting stress and social support were measured by neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), parenting stress index short form (PSI-SF), and multi-dimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS). Total mean score of the NPI in the L-ASD group was significantly higher than that in the H-ASD group (P<0.01). The subscale scores of NPI, including depression, anxiety, apathy, irritability, agitation, night time behavior disturbances and change in appetite were significantly higher in the L-ASD group than those in the H-ASD group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Meanwhile, the total PSI-SF scores and the scores of parental distress (PD), parental-child dysfunctional interaction (PCDI) and difficult child (DC) in the L-ASD group were significantly higher than those in the H-ASD group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The total score of MSPSS was also higher in the L-ASD group than in the H-ASD group (P<0.01). This study goes further to show the neuropsychiatric symptoms and parenting stress are significantly higher in mothers of children with ASD, and more social supports are needed for mothers of children with ASD from southern China, especially for mothers of children with low-functioning ASD.

Key words

autism spectrum disorder neuropsychiatric symptoms parenting stress social support mothers 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank all patients and family members who attended in this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Picardi A, Gigantesco A, Tarolla E, et al. Parental burden and its correlates in families of children with autism spectrum disorder: A multicentre study with two comparison groups. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health, 2018, 14:143–176Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kim K, Kim J, Voight A, et al. Listening to the screaming whisper: a voice of mother caregivers of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being, 2018, 13(1):1479585Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hutsler JJ, Love T, Zhang H. Histological and magnetic resonance imaging assessment of cortical layering and thickness in autism spectrum disorders. Biol Psychiatry, 2007, 61(4):449–457Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hutsler JJ, Zhang H. Increased dendritic spine densities on cortical projection neurons in autism spectrum disorders. Brain Res, 2010, 1309:83–94Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lv MN, Zhang H, Shu Y, et al. The neonatal levels of TSB, NSE and CK-BB in autism spectrum disorders from southern China. Transl Neurosci, 2016, 7(1):6–11Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang J, Hu Y, Wang Y, et al. Parenting stress in Chinese mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2013, 48(4):575–582Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lord C, Rutter M, Le Couteur A. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord, 1994, 24(5):659–685Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jin YL, Zhang H, Gao YZ, et al. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with vascular dementia in mainland China. Transl Neurosci, 2015, 6(1):157–161Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cummings JL, Mega M, Gray K, et al. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology, 1994, 44(12):2308–2314Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cummings JL. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: assessing psychopathology in dementia patients. Neurology, 1997, 48(5 Suppl 6):S10–S16Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leung VP, Lam LC, Chiu HF, et al. Validation study of the Chinese version of the neuropsychiatric inventory (CNPI). Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 2001, 16(8):789–793Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang T, Xiao S, Li X, et al. Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the neuropsychiatric inventory in mainland China. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 2012, 27(5):539–544Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zaidman-Zait A, Mirenda P, Zumbo BD, et al. Factor analysis of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form with parents of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism Res, 2011, 4(5):336–346Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pearson V, Chan TW. The relationship between parenting stress and social support in mothers of children with learning disabilities: a Chinese experience. Soc Sci Med, 1993, 37(2):267–274Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chan YC. Parenting stress and social support of mothers who physically abuse their children in Hong Kong. Child Abuse Negl, 1994, 18(3):261–269Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yeh CH, Chen ML, Li W, et al. The Chinese version of the parenting stress index: a psychometric study. Acta Paediatr, 2001, 90(12):1470–1477Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zimet GD, Powell SS, Farley GK, et al. Psychometric characteristics of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support. J Pers Assess, 1990, 55(3–4):610–617Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wong ST, Yoo GJ, Stewart AL. Examining the types of social support and the actual sources of support in older Chinese and Korean immigrants. Int J Aging Hum Dev, 2005, 61(2):105–121Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang H, Xiong RH, Hujiken S, et al. Psychological distress, family functioning, and social support in family caregivers for patients with dementia in the mainland of China. Chin Med J (Engl), 2013, 126 (18):3417–3421Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sun X, Allison C, Matthews FE, et al. Prevalence of autism in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Autism, 2013, 4(1):7Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wan Y, Hu Q, Li T, et al. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders among children in China: a systematic review. Shanghai Arch Psychiatry, 2013, 25(2):70–80Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang J, Zhou X, Xia W, et al. Autism awareness and attitudes towards treatment in caregivers of children aged 3–6 years in Harbin, China. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2012, 47(8):1301–1308Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu Y, Li J, Zheng Q, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of autism spectrum disorder in a stratified sampling of preschool teachers in China. BMC Psychiatry, 2016, 16:142Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang P, Michaels CA, Day MS. Stresses and coping strategies of Chinese families with children with autism and other developmental disabilities. J Autism Dev Disord, 2011, 41(6):783–795Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ji B, Zhao I, Turner C, et al. Predictors of health-related quality of life in Chinese caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders: a cross-sectional study. Arch Psychiatr Nurs, 2014, 28(5):327–332Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sun X, Allison C, Auyeung B, et al. A review of healthcare service and education provision of autism spectrum condition in mainland China. Res Dev Disabil, 2013, 34(1):469–479Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sun X, Allison C, Auyeung B, et al. Service provision for autism in mainland China: preliminary mapping of service pathways. Soc Sci Med, 2013, 98:87–94Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Xiong N, Yang L, Yu Y, et al. Investigation of raising burden of children with autism, physical disability and mental disability in China. Res Dev Disabil, 2011, 32(1):306–311Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yu YW, Chung KH, Lee YK, et al. Prevalence of maternal affective disorders in Chinese mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorders. East Asian Arch Psychiatry, 2016, 26(4):121–128Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kwok SY, Leung CL, Wong DF. Marital satisfaction of Chinese mothers of children with autism and intellectual disabilities in Hong Kong. J Intellect Disabil Res, 2014, 58(12):1156–1171Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Smith LE, Seltzer MM, Tager-Flusberg H, et al. A comparative analysis of well-being and coping among mothers of toddlers and mothers of adolescents with ASD. J Autism Dev Disord, 2008, 38(5):876–889Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Riahi F, Izadi-Mazidi S. Comparison between the mental health of mothers of children with autism and control group. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci, 2012, 6(2):91–95Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zablotsky B, Bradshaw CP, Stuart EA. The association between mental health, stress, and coping supports in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord, 2013, 43(6):1380–1393Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Padden C, James JE. Stress among parents of children with and without autism spectrum disorder: A comparison involving physiological indicators and parent self-reports. J Dev Phys Disabil, 2017, 29(4):567–586Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Green J, Charman T, Pickles A, et al. Parent-mediated intervention versus no intervention for infants at high risk of autism: a parallel, single-blind, randomised trial. Lancet Psychiatry, 2015, 2(2):133–140Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ji B, Sun M, Yi R, et al. Multidisciplinary parent education for caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders. Arch Psychiatr Nurs, 2014, 28(5):319–326Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sotoudeh Navroodi SO, Nicknam M, Ahmadi A, et al. Examining the effectiveness of group positive parenting training on increasing hope and life satisfaction in mothers of children with autism. Iran J Psychiatry, 2018, 13(2):128–134Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Iadarola S, Levato L, Harrison B, et al. Teaching parents behavioral strategies for autism spectrum disorder (ASD): Effects on stress, strain, and competence. J Autism Dev Disord, 2018, 48(4):1031–1040Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Huazhong University of Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyZhongnan Hospital of Wuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.Teaching and Research Section of NeuropsychiatryZhongnan Hospital of Wuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsUnion Hospital of Fujian Medical UniversityFuzhouChina

Personalised recommendations