Performance of concrete subjected to severe multiple actions of composite salts solution under wet-dry cycles and flexural loading in lab

  • Yanjuan Chen (陈燕娟)
  • Jianming Gao (高建明)Email author
  • Luping Tang
  • Daman Shen
Cementitious materials


Several action regimes were employed, namely, those exposed to solutions containing single and/or composite chloride and sulfate salts, and under wet-dry cycles and/or flexural loading. The variations in dynamic modulus of elasticity (E rd values) were monitored, as well as the key factor impacting on the chloride ingress when concrete subjected to multiple action regimes was identified by the method of Grey Relation Analysis (GRA). The changes in micro-structures and mineral products of interior concrete after different action regimes were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), mercury intrusion technique (MIP), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The test results showed that the cyclic wet-dry accelerated the deterioration of OPC concrete more than the action of 35% flexural loading based on the results of E rd values and the GEA. The analyses from micro-structures could give certain explanations to the change in E rd values under different action regimes.

Key words

concrete wet-dry cycles flexural loading composite salts solution grey relation analysis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Omar S, Mohammed M, Yaser A. Role of Chloride Ions on Expansion and Strength Reduction in Plain and Blended Cements in Sulfate Environments[J]. Constr. Build. Mater., 1995, 9(1): 25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Jin ZQ, Sun W, Zhang YS. Interaction between Sulfate and Chloride Solution Attack of Concretes with and without Fly Ash[J]. Cem. Concr. Res., 2007, 39(8): 1223–1232Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Fredrik P, Jacques M, Eric S. Durability of Concrete-Degradation Phenomena under Involving Detrimental Chemical Reactions[J]. Constr. Build. Mater., 2008, 38(2): 226–246Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Liu GJ, Zhang YS, Ni ZW. Corrosion Behavior of Steel Submitted to Chloride and Sulphate Ions in Simulated Concrete Pore Solution[J]. Constr. Build. Mater., 2016, 115(15): 1–5Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Yuan Q, Shi CJ, Schutter GD, et al. Chloride Binding of Cement-Based Materials Subjected to External Chloride Environment-A Review[J]. Constr. Build. Mater., 2009, 23(1): 1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Mavropoulou N, Katsiotis N, Giannakopoulos J, et al. Durability Evaluation of Cement Exposed to Combined Action of Chloride and Sulpate Ions at Elevated Temperature: The Role of Limestone Filler. Attack on Plain and Blended Cements Exposed to Aggressive Sulfate Environments[J]. Constr. Build. Mater., 2016, 124(15): 558–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Yu ZW, Chen Y, Liu P, et al. Accelerated Simulation of Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Drying–Wetting Alternation Condition Chloride Environment[J]. Constr. Build. Mater., 2015, 93(15): 205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Meghdad H, Vivek B, Nemkumar B. The Effect of Mechanical Stress on Permeability of Concrete: A Review[J]. Cem. Concr. Compos., 2009, 31(4): 213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Gao JM, Yu ZX, Song LG, et al. Durability of Concrete Exposed to Sulfate Attack under flexural Loadingand Wetting-Drying Cycles[J]. Constr. Build. Mater., 2013, 39(2): 33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Bassuoni MT, Nehdi ML, Durability of Self-Consolidating Concrete to Sulfate Attack under Combined Cyclic Environments and Flexural Loading[J]. Cem. Concr. Res., 2009, 39(3): 206–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Ye HL, Fu CQ, Jin NG, et al. Influence of Flexural Loading on Chloride Ingress in Concrete Subjected to Cyclic Wetting-Drying Condition[J]. Computers and Concrete., 2015, 15(2): 183–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Yuan Q. Fundamental Studies on Test Methods for the Transport of Chloride Ions in Cementitious Materials[D]. Ghent: Ghent University, 2009Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Bleszynski R, Hooton RD, Thomas MDA, Rogers CA. Durability of ternary Blend Concretes with silica Fume and blast-Furnace Slag: Laboratory and outdoor Exposure Site Studies[J]. ACI Mater. J., 2002, 99(5): 499–508Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Nicolas R, Cyr M, Escadeilas M. Performance-based Approach to Durability of Concrete Flash-calcined Metakaolin as Cement Replacement[J]. Constr. Build. Mater., 2014, 55(31): 313–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Ismail I, Bernal A S, Provis J, et al. Influence of Fly Ash on the Water and Chloride Influence Permeability of Alkali-activated Slag Mortars and Concretes[J]. Constr. Build. Mater., 2013, 48(2): 1187–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Alaa M, Rashad. A Comprehensive Overview about the Influence of different Admixtures and Additives on the Properties of Alkali-activated Fly Ash[J]. Materials and Design, 2014, 53(1): 1005–1025Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Pangdaeng S, Phoo-ngernkham T, Sata V, et al. Influence of Curing Conditions on properties of High Calcium Fly Ash Geopolymer Containing Portland Cement as Additive[J]. Materials and Design, 2014, 53(1): 269–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Chen YJ, Gao JM, Tang LP, et al. Resistance of Concrete against Combined Attack of Chloride and Sulfate Under Drying-Wetting Cycles[J]. Constr. Build. Mater., 2016, 106(3): 650–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Chan J, Tong T. Multi-Criteria material Selections and End-of-life Product Strategy: Grey relational Analysis Approach[J]. Materials and Design, 2007, 28(2007): 1539–1546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Chang TC, Lin SJ. Grey Relation Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrial Production and Energy Uses in Taiwan[J]. Journal of Environmental Management, 1999, 56(1999): 247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Yuan YP, Zhang HQ, Yang F, et al. Inorganic Composite Sorbents for Water Vapor Sorption: A Research Progress[J]. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016, 54(2): 761–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Wuhan University of Technology and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yanjuan Chen (陈燕娟)
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jianming Gao (高建明)
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Luping Tang
    • 3
  • Daman Shen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Construction MaterialsSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.Chalmers University of TechnologyGothenburgSweden

Personalised recommendations