Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Catalyst-assisted growth of InGaN NWs for photoelectrochemical water-splitting applications

  • 18 Accesses

Abstract

In this work, we have successfully grown InGaN nanowires by catalyst-assisted chemical vapour deposition technique with high aspect ratio for solar-driven water splitting applications. The band gap of the InGaN nanowires has been tuned to absorb a wide range of visible parts of electromagnetic spectrum by optimizing the composition of In:Ga. The photoelectrochemical analysis has been carried out for InGaN nanowires and that evidences the significant solar oxygen evolution reaction with a small onset potential of 0.234 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode. From the analysis, it has been witnessed the maximum applied bias to photo-conversion efficiency of ~ 1% at the applied bias of 0.63 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode. Moreover, the ultra-long stability of InGaN nanowires has been evidenced by 3000 s with a flat current density of 0.43 mA/cm2 in chronoamperometry analysis.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. 1.

    Habisreutinger SN, Stolarczyk JK, Stolarczyk JK et al Photocatalytic Reduction of CO 2 on TiO 2 and Other Semiconductors. Angewandte 2–39. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201207199

  2. 2.

    Li J, Wu N (2015) Semiconductor-based photocatalysts and photoelectrochemical cells for solar fuel generation: a review. Catal Sci Technol 5:1360–1384. https://doi.org/10.1039/C4CY00974F

  3. 3.

    Swierk JR, Mallouk TE (2012) Chem Soc Rev Design and development of photoanodes for water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells w. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2cs35246j

  4. 4.

    Youngblood WJ, Lee SA, Maeda K, Mallouk TE (2009) Visible light water splitting using dye- sensitized oxide semiconductors. 42

  5. 5.

    Fujishima A, Honda K (1972) Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode. Nature 238:37–38. https://doi.org/10.1038/238038a0

  6. 6.

    Liu CF, Lu YJ, Hu CC (2018) Effects of anions and pH on the stability of ZnO nanorods for photoelectrochemical water splitting. ACS Omega 3:3429–3439. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b00214

  7. 7.

    Masudy-Panah S, Eugene YJK, Khiavi ND et al (2018) Aluminum-incorporated p-CuO/n-ZnO photocathode coated with nanocrystal-engineered TiO2 protective layer for photoelectrochemical water splitting and hydrogen generation. J Mater Chem A 6:11951–11965. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8ta03027h

  8. 8.

    Toupin J, Strubb H, Kressman S, Artero V, Krins N, Laberty-Robert C (2019) CuO photoelectrodes synthesized by the sol–gel method for water splitting. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 89:255–263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10971-018-4896-3

  9. 9.

    Kim B, Oh H, Yun K et al (2013) Progress in organic coatings effect of TiO 2 supporting layer on Fe 2 O 3 photoanode for efficient water splitting. Prog Org Coat 76:1869–1873. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2013.05.031

  10. 10.

    Wang G, Wang B, Su C et al (2018) Enhancing and stabilizing a -Fe 2 O 3 photoanode towards neutral water oxidation : introducing a dual-functional NiCoAl layered double hydroxide overlayer. J Catal 359:287–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2018.01.011

  11. 11.

    Han HS, Shin S, Kim DH et al (2018) Boosting the solar water oxidation performance of a BiVO 4 photoanode by crystallographic orientation control. Energy Environ Sci 11:1299–1306. https://doi.org/10.1039/c8ee00125a

  12. 12.

    Wook HJ, Ryu H, Lee WJ, Bae JS (2017) Efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting using CuO nanorod/Al2O3 heterostructure photoelectrodes with different Al layer thicknesses. Phys B Condens Matter 519:95–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physb.2017.05.052

  13. 13.

    Abdi FF (2012) Nature and light dependence of bulk recombination in Co-Pi- catalyzed BiVO 4 photoanodes

  14. 14.

    Kibria MG, Chowdhury FA, Trudeau ML, et al (2015) Dye-sensitized InGaN nanowire arrays for efficient hydrogen production under visible light irradiation. Nanotechnology 26. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/26/28/285401

  15. 15.

    Alotaibi B, Nguyen HPT, Zhao S et al (2013) Highly stable photoelectrochemical water splitting and hydrogen generation using a double-band InGaN/GaN core/shell nanowire photoanode

  16. 16.

    Kuykendall T, Ulrich P, Aloni S, Yang P (2007) Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach. 951–956. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat2037

  17. 17.

    Cao L, Fan P, Vasudev AP et al (2010) Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers. 439–445. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl9036627

  18. 18.

    Purushothaman V, Sundara Venkatesh P, Navamathavan R, Jeganathan K (2014) Direct comparison on the structural and optical properties of metal-catalytic and self-catalytic assisted gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires by chemical vapor deposition †. RSC Adv 4. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ra05388e

  19. 19.

    Wu K, Han T, Shen K et al (2010) Growth of vertically aligned InGaN nanorod arrays on p-type Si substrates for heterojunction diodes. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 10:8139–8144. https://doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2010.2659

  20. 20.

    Gopalakrishnan M, Purushothaman V, Venkatesh PS et al (2012) Structural and optical properties of GaN and InGaN nanoparticles by chemical co-precipitation method. Mater Res Bull. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.materresbull.2012.07.031

  21. 21.

    Hernández S, Cuscó R, Pastor D et al (2005) Raman-scattering study of the InGaN alloy over the whole composition range. J Appl Phys 98:1–5. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1940139

  22. 22.

    Vidal RO Optical emission and Raman scattering in InGaN thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Unknown unknown:1–10. 2445/14763

  23. 23.

    Liu T, Jiao S, Wang D et al (2015) Radiative recombination mechanism of carriers in InGaN/AlInGaN multiple quantum wells with varying aluminum content. J Alloys Compd 621:12–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.09.170

  24. 24.

    White ME, Donnell KPO, Martin RW, et al (2002) Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of InGaN epilayers. 93:147–149

  25. 25.

    Gopalakrishnan M, Gopalakrishnan S, Bhalerao GM, Jeganathan K (2017) Multiband InGaN nanowires with enhanced visible photon absorption for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting. J Power Sources. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.10.099

  26. 26.

    Chu S, Vanka S, Wang Y et al (2018) Solar water oxidation by an InGaN nanowire photoanode with a bandgap of 1.7 eV. ACS Energy Lett. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsenergylett.7b01138

  27. 27.

    Pendyala C, Jasinski JB, Kim JH et al (2012) Nanowires as semi-rigid substrates for growth of thick, In xGa1-xN (x > 0.4) epi-layers without phase segregation for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Nanoscale. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2nr32020g

  28. 28.

    Varadhan P, Fu H-C, Priante D, Retamal JR, Zhao C, Ebaid M, Ng TK, Ajia I, Mitra S, Roqan IS, Ooi BS, He JH (2017) Surface passivation of GaN nanowires for enhanced Photoelectrochemical water-splitting. Nano Lett 17:1520–1528. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04559

  29. 29.

    Paulraj G, Venkatesh PS, Dharmaraj P et al (2019) Stable and highly efficient MoS2/Si NWs hybrid heterostructure for photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction. Int J Hydrog Energy 45:1793–1801. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.11.051

  30. 30.

    Gnanasekar P, Periyanagounder D, Varadhan P et al (2019) Highly efficient and stable photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution with 2D-NbS / Si nanowire heterojunction highly efficient and stable photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution with 2D-NbS 2 / Si nanowire heterojunction. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b14713

Download references

Acknowledgements

PSV would like to express his sincere gratitude to the College management for their financial support to develop a nanomaterials laboratory.

Funding

PSV would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology – Science and Engineering Research Board (DST - SERB), Govt. of India, for the financial support under the project (YSS/2015/000632) and also would like to acknowledge the University Grants Commission (UGC) for the financial assistance under the contract no. MRP-7036/16 (SERO/UGC).

Author information

Correspondence to P. Sundara Venkatesh.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Venkatesh, P.S., Paulraj, G., Dharmaraj, P. et al. Catalyst-assisted growth of InGaN NWs for photoelectrochemical water-splitting applications. Ionics (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11581-020-03488-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • InGaN nanowires
  • Hydrogen production
  • Chemical vapour deposition
  • Photoelectrochemical studies
  • STH efficiency