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Facile sol-gel synthesis of LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 cathode materials fostered by bio-derived natural agar

  • Chung-Hsin LuEmail author
  • T. Subburaj
  • Hong-Ting Chiou
  • Sudipta Som
  • Chang Ying Ou
  • P. Senthil Kumar
  • S. Balaji
Short Communication


Olivine-structured LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 cathode materials were successfully synthesized via the bio-derived agar-assisted sol-gel method. Rietveld analysis revealed that the structure of the synthesized materials was orthorhombic with the Pbnm space group. The addition of agar in the precursors significantly reduced the calcination temperature and impurity phases. When increasing the temperature from 400 to 700 °C, the particle size of LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 was increased from 1 to 3 μm. Among all the samples, LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 synthesized with agar at 700 °C delivered better electrochemical performances due to its lower charge transfer resistance. The same sample exhibited specific discharge capacities of 143, 123, 110, 96, and 88 mAh/g at C/10, C/5, C/3, C/2, and 1C rates, respectively. The retention in capacity was observed to be 95% for 40 cycles at C/3 rate. The obtained results indicated the feasibility to synthesize phase pure LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 powders by the addition of agar.


LiMn0.5Fe0.5PO4 Sol-gel method Agarobiose Carbothermal reduction Lithium-ion batteries 


Funding information

This work was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology in Taiwan (MOST 107-3017-F-002-001) and also sponsored by “Advanced Research Center of Green Materials Science and Technology” from ‘The Featured Area Research Center Program’ within the framework of the ‘Higher Education Sprout Project’ by the Ministry of Education (107L9006).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

11581_2019_3258_MOESM1_ESM.doc (976 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 976 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chung-Hsin Lu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • T. Subburaj
    • 1
  • Hong-Ting Chiou
    • 1
  • Sudipta Som
    • 1
  • Chang Ying Ou
    • 1
  • P. Senthil Kumar
    • 1
  • S. Balaji
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan, Republic of China
  2. 2.Advanced Research Center of Green Materials Science & TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan, Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Taiwan University of Science & TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan, Republic of China

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