, Volume 25, Issue 12, pp 6093–6106 | Cite as

Rapid, trace-level direct cathodic voltammetric determination of dopamine by oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotube–modified carbon paste electrode in selected samples of pharmaceutical importance

  • Jasmina AnojčićEmail author
  • Valéria Guzsvány
  • Zoltán Kónya
  • Momir Mikov
Original Paper


Selected carbonaceous nanomaterial–modified carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) were compared for trace-level determination of dopamine (DA) by direct cathodic square wave voltammetry (SWV). The advanced nanomaterials containing electrodes were obtained from homemade multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in their native and functionalized (ox-MWCNTs) forms, commercially available MWCNTs, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and fullerene, by a very simple drop coating method, and from classical CPE which consists of graphite powder and paraffin oil only. The comparative SWV measurements confirmed the priority of ox-MWCNT/CPE as it exhibited the best analytical performance with a well-shaped and intensive DA signal, which strongly depended upon pH and exhibited the most favorable characteristics at pH 6.3 (0.1 M phosphate buffer solution). The cyclic voltammetric (CV) characterization of DA on ox-MWCNT/CPE confirmed the reversible process and much higher sensitivity of this electrode in comparison with the other ones. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic measurements indicated a significant difference between MWCNTs and ox-MWCNTs, which is the consequence of the chemical oxidation/functionalization of the latter one having a positive influence on its sensing properties. The optimized SWV method was characterized by a linear concentration range of 16.15–192.70 ng mL−1 DA, a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 1.3%, and a detection limit in the model solution of 4.89 ng mL−1. Also, interferences from ascorbic acid were negligible. The developed method was successfully applied for DA determination in injection/selected infusion matrix solutions, whereby the obtained results were in good agreement with DA content declared by the producer with RSD of the method below 1.0%.


Dopamine Electrochemical sensor Square wave voltammetry Carbon paste electrode Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes Injection/infusion samples 



The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Project Nos. 172012 and 172059) and the CEEPUSIII (CZ-0212-12-1819) network.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11581_2019_3156_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (493 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 493 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jasmina Anojčić
    • 1
    Email author
  • Valéria Guzsvány
    • 1
  • Zoltán Kónya
    • 2
    • 3
  • Momir Mikov
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental ProtectionUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia
  2. 2.Department of Applied and Environmental ChemistryUniversity of SzegedSzegedHungary
  3. 3.MTA-SZTE Reaction Kinetics and Surface Chemistry Research GroupSzegedHungary
  4. 4.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Clinical PharmacologyUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia

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