Advertisement

Ionics

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 4637–4650 | Cite as

Kombucha scoby-based carbon as a green scaffold for high-capacity cathode in lithium–sulfur batteries

  • Krishnaveni Kalaiappan
  • Sivakumar MarimuthuEmail author
  • Subadevi Rengapillai
  • Raja Murugan
  • Premkumar T.
Original Paper

Abstract

A ternary composite cathode of sulfur, poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN), and carbon was investigated for the possible use in Li–S batteries. The carbon used in this work was obtained from kombucha tea or tea fungus with potassium hydroxide activation process. The flaky structure of functionalized carbon derived from a waste part of kombucha culture has micropores and mesopores with a large pore volume, which are favorable for impregnating elemental sulfur. The ration of the ternary composite was based on a simple process involving a dispersion of the carbon with that of S/PAN, followed by a simple heat treatment. The cathode delivered an initial discharge capacity of 1666 mAh g−1 at C/10 rate and a 100th cycle capacity of 838 mAh g−1. This study exploits the cumulative contribution of a conductive carbon and PAN in the improved performance of the cathode.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Sulfur cathode Composite cathode Kombucha scoby Lithium–sulfur battery 

Notes

Funding information

This study was financially supported by BSR of University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India, and Ministry of Human Resource Development RUSA-Phase 2.0 grant sanctioned vide Lt.No.F-24-51/2014 U Policy (TNMulti Gen), Dept. of Education, Government of India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11581_2019_3018_MOESM1_ESM.doc (134 kb)
Figure S1 CV curve for S/PAN composite cathode. Fig. S2 Rate capability of S/PAN, S/KC and S/PAN/KC composite (DOC 133 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Manthiram A, Fu Y, Su YS (2012) Challenges and prospects of lithium–sulfur batteries. Acc Chem Res 46:1125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yang Y, Zheng G, Cui Y (2013) Nanostructured sulfur cathodes. Chem Soc Rev 42:3018–3032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang Y, Bakenov Z, Zhao Y, Konarov A, Doan TNL, Sun KEK, Yermukhambetova A, Chen P (2013) Effect of nanosized Mg0.6Ni0.4O prepared by self-propagating high temperature synthesis on sulfur cathode performance in Li/S batteries. Powder Technol 235:248Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Song MK, Cairns EJ, Zhang Y (2013) Lithium/sulfur batteries with high specific energy: old challenges and new opportunities. Nanoscale. 5:2186–2204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Manthiram A (2011) Correction to “materials challenges and opportunities of lithium ion batteries”. J Phys Chem Lett 2:176–184Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang JZ, Lu L, Choucair M, Stride JA, Xu X, Liu HK (2011) Sulfur-graphene composite for rechargeable lithium batteries. J Power Sources 196:7030–7034Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hart CJ, Cuisinier M, Liang X, Kundu D, Garsuch A, Nazar LF (2014) Rational design of sulphur host materials for Li-S batteries: correlating lithium polysulphide adsorptivity and self-discharge capacity loss. Chem Commun 51:2308–2311.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C4CC08980D CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xu GL, Xu YF, Fang JC, Peng XX, Fu F, Huang L, Li JT, Sun SG (2013) Porous graphitic carbon loading ultrahigh sulfur as high performance cathode of rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:10782–10793PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yang Y, Yu G, Cha JJ, Wu H, Vosgueritchian M, Yao Y, Bao Z, Cui Y (2011) Improving the performance of lithium–sulfur batteries by conductive polymer coating. ACS Nano 5:9187–9193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhou W, Xiao X, Cai M, Yang L (2014) Polydopamine-coated, nitrogen-doped, hollow carbon–sulfur double-layered core–shell structure for improving lithium–sulfur batteries. Nano Lett 14:5250–5256Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aurbach D, Pollak E, Elazri R, Salitra G, Kelley CS, Affinito J (2009) On the surface chemical aspects of very high energy density, rechargeable Li–sulfur batteries. J Electrochem Soc 156:A694Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang JG, Xie K, Wei B (2015) Advanced engineering of nanostructured carbons for lithium–sulfur batteries. Nano Energy 15:413–444Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Krishnaveni K, Subadevi R, Raja M, PremKumar T, Sivakumar M (2018) Sulfur/PAN/acetylene black composite prepared by a solution processing technique for lithium–sulfur batteries. J Appl Polym Sci 135:46598Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rajkumar P, Diwakar K, Radhika G, Krishnaveni K, Subadevi R, Sivakumar M (2019) Effect of silicon dioxide in sulfur/carbon black composite as a cathode material for lithium sulfur batteries. Vacuum 161:37–48Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Radhika G, Subadevi R, Krishnaveni K, Liu WR, Sivakumar M (2018) Synthesis and electrochemical performance of PEG-MnO2–sulfur composites cathode materials for lithium, sulfur batteries. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 18(1):127–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ji X, Lee K, Nazar LF (2009) A highly ordered nanostructured carbon–sulphur cathode for lithium–sulphur batteries. Nat Mater 8:500–506PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ji X, Evers S, Black R, Nazar LF (2011) Stabilizing lithium–sulphur cathodes using Nat polysulphide reservoirs. Commun 2:325Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li X, Cao Y, Qi W, Saraf LV, Xiao J, Nie Z, Mietek J, Zhang JG, Schwenzer B, Liu J (2011) Optimization of mesoporous carbon structures for lithium–sulfur battery applications. J Mater Chem 21:16603Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jayaprakash N, Shen J, Moganty SS, Corona A, Archer LA (2011) Porous hollow carbon@ sulfur composites for high-power lithium–sulfur batteries. Angew Chem Int Ed 50:5904Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhang C, Wu HB, Yuan C, Guo Z, Lou XW (2012) Confining sulfur in double-shelled hollow carbon spheres for lithium–sulfur batteries. Angew Chem Int Ed 51:9592–9595Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brun N, Sakaushi K, Yu L, Giebeler L, Eckert J, Titirici MM (2013) Hydrothermal carbon-based nanostructured hollow spheres as electrode materials for high-power lithium–sulfur batteries. Phys Chem Chem Phys 15:6080–6087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dörfler S, Hagen M, Althues H, Tübke J, Kaskel S, Hoffmann MJ (2012) High capacity vertical aligned carbon nanotube/sulfur composite cathodes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Chem.Commun. 48:4097Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jin K, Zhou X, Zhang L, Xin X, Wan G, Liu Z (2013) Sulfur/carbon nanotube composite film as a flexible cathode for lithium–sulfur batteries. J Phys Chem C 117:21112–21119Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yuan Z, Peng HJ, Huang JQ, Liu XY, Wang DW, Cheng XB, Zhang Q (2014) Hierarchical free-standing carbon-nanotube paper electrodes with ultrahigh sulfur-loading for lithium–sulfur batteries. Adv Funct Mater 24:6105–6112Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang XQ, Sun Q, Dong W, Li D, Lu AH, Mu JQ, Li WC (2013) Synthesis of superior carbon nanofibers with large aspect ratio and tunable porosity for electrochemical energy storage. J MaterChem A 1:9449Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zeng L, Pan F, Li W, Jiang Y, Zhong X, Yu Y (2014) Free-standing porous carbon nanofibers–sulfur composite for flexible Li–S battery cathode. Nanoscale. 6:9579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhou L, Lin X, Huang T, Yu A (2014) Nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanofiber webs/sulfur composites as cathode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. Electrochim Acta 116:210–216Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chen S, Huang X, Liu H, Sun B, Yeoh W, Li K, Zhang J, Wang G (2014) 3D hyper branched hollow carbon nanorod architectures for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries. Adv Energy Mater 4:1301761Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang X, Zhang Z, Qu Y, Lai Y, Li J (2014) Nitrogen-doped graphene/sulfur composite as cathode material for high capacity lithium–sulfur batteries. J Power Sources 256:361–368Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Qiu WL, Zhao W, Li G, Hou Y, Liu M, Zhou L (2014) High-rate, ultralong cycle-life lithium/sulfur batteries enabled by nitrogen-doped graphene. Nano Lett 14:4821–4827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang C, Su K, Wan W, Guo H, Zhou H, Chen J, Zhang X, Huang Y (2014) High sulfur loading composite wrapped by 3D nitrogen-doped graphene as a cathode material for lithium–sulfur batteries. J Mater Chem A 2:5018–5023Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ji L, Rao M, Zheng H, Zhang L, Li Y, Duan W, Guo J, Cairns EJ, Zhang Y (2011) Graphene oxide as a sulfur immobilizer in high performance lithium/sulfur cells. J Am Chem Soc 133:18522–18525PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Evers S, Nazar LF (2012) Graphene-enveloped sulfur in a one pot reaction: a cathode with good coulombic efficiency and high practical sulfur content. Chem Commun 48:1233–1235Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wei Z, Chen J, Qin L, Nemage A, Zheng M, Dong Q (2012) Two-step hydrothermal method for synthesis of sulfur-graphene hybrid and its application in lithium sulfur batteries. J Electrochem Soc 159:A1236–A1239Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhao X, Tu J, Lu Y, Cai J, Zhang Y, Wang X, Gu C (2013) Graphene-coated mesoporous carbon/sulfur cathode with enhanced cycling stability. Electrochim Acta 113:256–262Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    You Y, Zeng W, Yin YX, Zhang J, Yang CP, Zhu Y, Guo YG (2015) Hierarchically micro/mesoporous activated graphene with a large surface area for high sulfur loading in Li–S batteries. J Mater Chem A 3:4799–4802Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Titirici MM, White RJ, Brun N, Budarin VL, Su DS, del Monte F, Clarkd JH, MacLachlang MJ (2015) Sustainable carbon materials. Chem Soc Rev 44:250–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Otowa T, Tanibata R, Itoh M (1993) Production and adsorption characteristics of MAXSORB: high-surface-area active carbon. Gas Sep Purif 7:241–245Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lozano-Castello D, Calo JM, Cazorla-Amoros D, Linares-Solano A (2007) Carbon activation with KOH as explored by temperature programmed techniques and the effects of hydrogen. Carbon. 45:2529–2536Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wang J, Kaskel S (2012) KOH activation of carbon-based materials for energy storage. J Mater Chem 22:23710Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nielsen M, Jurasek P, Hayashi J, Furimsky E (1995) Formation of toxic gases during pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile and nylons. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 35:43–51Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wiggins-Camacho JD, Stevenson KJ (2009) Effect of nitrogen concentration on capacitance, density of states, electronic conductivity, and morphology of N-doped carbon nanotube electrodes. J Phys Chem C 113:19082–19090Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wood KN, Hayre OR, Pylypenko S (2014) Recent progress on nitrogen/carbon structures designed for use in energy and sustainability applications. Energy Environ Sci 7:1212–1249Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhao X, Liu Y, Manuel J, Chauhan GS, Ahn HJ, Kim KW, Cho KK, Ahn HJ (2015) Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon: a top-down strategy to promote sulfur immobilization for lithium–sulfur batteries. Chem Sus Chem 8:3234–3241Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sun F, Wang J, Chen H, Li W, Qiao W, Long D, Ling L (2013) High efficiency immobilization of sulfur on nitrogen-enriched mesoporous carbons for Li–S batteries. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:5630–5638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chen F, Yang J, Bai T, Long B, Zhou X (2016) Biomass waste-derived honeycomb-like nitrogen and oxygen dual-doped porous carbon for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries. Electrochim Acta 192:99–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2016.01.192 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Burlant WJ, Parsons JL (1956) Pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile. J Polym Sci 22:249–256Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Doan TNL, Ghaznavi M, Zhao Y, Zhang Y, Konarov A, Sadhu M, Tangirala R, Chen P (2013) Binding mechanism of sulfur and dehydrogenated polyacrylonitrile in sulfur/polymer composite cathode. J Power Sources 241:61–69Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Du X, Zhao W, Wang Y, Wang CY, Chen MM, Qi T, Hua C, Ma M (2013) Preparation of activated carbon hollow fibers from ramie at low temperature for electric double-layer capacitor applications. Bioresour Technol 149:31–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lee JT, Zhao Y, Thieme S, Kim H, Oschatz M, Borchardt L, Magasinski A, Cho WI, Kaskel S, Yushin G (2013) Sulfur-infiltrated micro-and mesoporous silicon carbide-derived carbon cathode for high-performance lithium sulfur batteries. Adv Mater 25:4573–4579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yushin G, Dash R, Jagiello J, Fischer JE, Gogotsi Y (2006) Carbide-derived carbons: effect of pore size on hydrogen uptake and heat of adsorption. Adv Funct Mater 16:2288–2293Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Xiao L, Cao Y, Xiao J, Schwenzer B, Engelhard MH, Saraf LV, Nie Z, Exarhos GJ, Liu J (2012) A soft approach to encapsulate sulfur: polyaniline nanotubes for lithium-sulfur batteries with long cycle life. Adv Mater 24:1176PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jayaprakash N, Shen J, Moganty SS, Corona A, Archer LA (2011) Porous hollow carbon@ sulfur composites for high-power lithium–sulfur batteries. Angew Chem Int Ed 123:6026–6030Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hwang TH, Jung DS, Kim JS, Kim BG, Choi JW (2013) One-dimensional carbon–sulfur composite fibers for Na–S rechargeable batteries operating at room temperature. Nano Lett 13:4532–4538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wang JL, Yang J, Xie JY, Xu NX (2002) A novel conductive polymer–sulfur composite cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Adv Mater 14:963–965Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wang J, Wang J, Wan C, Du K, Xie J, Xu N (2003) Sulfur composite cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Adv Funct Mater 13:487–492Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Konarov A, Gosselink D, Nam T, Doan L, Zhang Y, Zhao Y, Chen P (2014) Simple, scalable, and economical preparation of sulfur–PAN composite cathodes for Li/S batteries. J Power Sources 259:183–187Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lafi L, Cossement D, Chahine R (2005) Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen vapour adsorption for the study of structural changes during purification of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon 43:1347–1357Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ma Y, Zhao J, Zhang L, Zhao Y, Fan Q, Li X, Hu Z, Huang W (2011) The production of carbon microtubes by the carbonization of catkins and their use in the oxygen reduction reaction. Carbon. 49:5292–5297Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Boehm HP (1994) Some aspects of the surface chemistry of carbon blacks and other carbons. Carbon. 32:759–769Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yu X, Xie J, Yang J, Huang H, Wang K, Wen Z (2004) Lithium storage in conductive sulfur-containing polymers. J Electroanal Chem 573:121Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fanous J, Wegner M, Grimminger J, Andresen A, Buchmeiser MR (2011) Structure-related electrochemistry of sulfur-poly (acrylonitrile) composite cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Chem.Mater. 23:5024–5028Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Li G, Wang X, Seo MH, Li M, Ma L, Yuan Y, Wu T, Yu A, Wang S, Lu J, Chen Z (2018) Chemisorption of polysulfides through redox reactions with organic molecules for lithium–sulfur batteries. Nat Commun 9:705PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Biljana MS, Biljana M, Gordana BG, Vladimir MP (2012) Micro-raman and micro-FTIR spectroscopic investigation of raw and dyed pan fibers. Croat Chem Acta 85:63Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ni L, Zhao G, Yang G, Niu G, Chen M, Diao G (2017) Dual core–shell structured S@C@MnO2 nanocomposite for highly stable lithium–sulfur batteries. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b07996 Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pan H, Cheng Z, Xiao Z, Li X, Wang R (2017) The fusion of imidazolium-based ionic polymer and carbon Nanotubes: One Type of New Heteroatom-Doped Carbon Precursors for High-Performance Lithium–Sulfur Batteries. Adv Funct Mater.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201703936 Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Yuan S, Guo Z, Wang L, Hu S, Wang Y, Xia Y (2015) Leaf-like graphene-oxide-wrapped sulfur for high-performance lithium–sulfur battery. Adv.Sci. 2:1500071Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ren J, Zhou Y, Wu H, Xie F, Xu C, Lin D Sulfur-encapsulated in heteroatom-doped hierarchical porous carbon derived from goat hair for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries. J Energy Chem. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jechem.2018.01.015]Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ji X, Nazar LF (2010) Advances in Li–S batteries. J Mater Chem 20:9821Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Li N, Zheng M, Lu H, Hu Z, Shen C, Chang X, Ji G, Cao J, Shi Y (2012) High-rate lithium–sulfur batteries promoted by reduced graphene oxide coating. Chem Commun 48:4106Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zhang B, Qin X, Li GR, Gao XP (2010) Enhancement of long stability of sulfur cathode by encapsulating sulfur into micropores of carbon spheres. Energy Environ Sci 3:1531Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bresser D, Passerini S, Scrosati B, (2013) Recent progress and remaining challenges in sulfur-based lithium secondary batteries–a review Chem Commun 49:10545Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zhang YZ, Liu S, Li GC, Li GR, Gao XP (2014) Sulfur/polyacrylonitrile/carbon multi-composites as cathode materials for lithium/sulfur battery in the concentrated electrolyte. J Mater Chem A 2:4652–4659Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sun H, Xu GL, Xu YF, Sun SG, Zhang XF, Qiu YC, Yang SH (2012) A composite material of uniformly dispersed sulfur on reduced graphene oxide: aqueous one-pot synthesis, characterization and excellent performance as the cathode in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries. Nano Res 5:726–738Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wang YX, Huang L, Sun LC, Xie SY, Xu GL, Chen SR, Xu YF, Li JT, Chou SL, Dou SX, Sun SG (2012) Facile synthesis of a interleaved expanded graphite-embedded sulphur nanocomposite as cathode of Li–S batteries with excellent lithium storage performance. J Mater Chem 22:4744Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Krishnaveni K, Subadevi R, Premkumar T, Raja M, Sivakumar M (2019) Synthesis and characterization of graphene oxide capped sulfur/polyacrylonitrile composite cathode by simple heat treatment. J Sulfur Chem:1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17415993.2019.1582655 Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Krishnaveni K, Subadevi R, Radhika G, Premkumar T, Raja M, Liu WR, Sivakumar M (2018) Carbon wrapping effect on sulfur/polyacrylonitrile composite cathode materials for lithium sulfur batteries. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 18:121–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kumaresan K, Mikhaylik Y, White RE (2008) A mathematical model for a lithium–sulfur cell J. Electrochem Soc 155:A576Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Choi JW, Cheruvally G, Kim DS, Ahn JH, Kim KW, Ahn HJ (2008) Rechargeable lithium/sulfur battery with liquid electrolytes containing toluene as additive. J Power Sources 183:441–445Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lee YM, Choi NS, Park JH, Park JK (2003) Electrochemical performance of lithium/sulfur batteries with protected Li anodes. J Power Sources 964:119–121Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Zheng G, Yang Y, Cha JJ, Hong SS, Cui Y (2011) Hollow carbon nanofiber-encapsulated sulfur cathodes for high specific capacity rechargeable lithium batteries. Nano Lett 11:4462–4467PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wang H, Yang Y, Liang Y, Robinson JT, Li Y, Jackson A, Cui Y, Dai H (2011) Graphene-wrapped sulfur particles as a rechargeable lithium–sulfur battery cathode material with high capacity and cycling stability. Nano Lett 11:2644–2647Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Guo JX, Zhang J, Jiang F, Zhao SH, Su QM, Du GH (2015) Microporous carbon nanosheets derived from corncobs for lithium–sulfur batteries. Electrochim Acta 176:853–860Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ji S, Imtiaz S, Sun D, Xin Y, Li Q, Huang T, Zhang Z, Huang Y (2017) Coralline-like n-doped hierarchically porous carbon derived from enteromorpha as host matrix for lithium-sulfur battery. Chem Eur J 23:18208–18215Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Moreno N, Caballero A, Hernán L, Morales J (2014) Lithium–sulfur batteries with activated carbons derived from olive stones. Carbon 70:241–248Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Zhao S, Li C, Wang W, Zhang H, Gao M, Xiong X, Wang A, Yuan K, Huang Y, Wang FA (2013) Novel porous nanocomposite of sulfur/carbon obtained from fish scales for lithium-sulfur batteries. J Mater Chem A 1:3334Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Zhang S, Zheng M, Lin Z, Li N, Liu Y, Zhao B, Pang H, Cao J, He P, Shi Y, (2014) Activated carbon with ultrahigh specific surface area synthesized from natural plant material for lithium-sulfur batteries. J Mater Chem A 2:15889Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sun Z, Zhang J, Yin L, Hu G, Fang R, Cheng HM, Li F (2017) Conductive porous vanadium nitride/graphene composite as chemical anchor of polysulfides for lithium-sulfur batteries. Nat Commun 8:14627Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krishnaveni Kalaiappan
    • 1
  • Sivakumar Marimuthu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Subadevi Rengapillai
    • 1
  • Raja Murugan
    • 2
  • Premkumar T.
    • 2
  1. 1.#120, Energy Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Science BlockAlagappa UniversityKaraikudiIndia
  2. 2.Electrochemical Power Systems DivisionCSIR-Central Electrochemical Research InstituteKaraikudiIndia

Personalised recommendations