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Ionics

, Volume 25, Issue 9, pp 4381–4392 | Cite as

Sol–gel synthesis of manganese oxide supercapacitor from manganese recycled from spent Zn–MnO2 batteries using organic acid as a leaching agent

  • P. V. M. Dixini
  • B. B. Carvalho
  • G. R. Gonçalves
  • V. C. B. Pegoretti
  • M. B. J. G. FreitasEmail author
Original Paper
  • 101 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, manganese recycled from cathodes of spent Zn–MnO2 batteries was used for the sol–gel synthesis of a manganese oxide pseudocapacitor with high specific capacitance. The recycled material is a mixture of α-MnO2, Mn3O4, and ZnMn2O4, according to X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray, Raman spectra, and chemical analysis. Manganese oxide has smaller particle size when synthesized at 700 °C for 3 h (M1) than when synthesized at 700 °C for 12 h (M2), as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and transmission energy microscopy. The specific capacitances of M1 and M2 after 1000 cyclic voltammetry cycles at 50 mV s−1 are 350 F g−1 and 125 F g−1, respectively. After 500 galvanostatic cycles at 1.0 A g−1, M1 and M2 exhibit specific capacitances of 275 F g−1 and 150 F g−1, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra revealed that M1 has lower charge transfer resistance and diffusion resistance than M2.

Keywords

Sol–gel synthesis Manganese oxide Pseudocapacitor Recycling Alkaline batteries 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank CAPES, NCQP-UFES, FAPES, and CNPq for their financial support; IFES/Aracruz and LPT/LMC for the XRD, SEM/EDX, and BET analyses; and LUCCAR for the TEM analysis.

Supplementary material

11581_2019_2995_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (106 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 106 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. V. M. Dixini
    • 1
    • 2
  • B. B. Carvalho
    • 1
  • G. R. Gonçalves
    • 2
  • V. C. B. Pegoretti
    • 2
  • M. B. J. G. Freitas
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology of Espírito SantoAracruzBrazil
  2. 2.Chemistry Department, Laboratory of Electrochemistry and ElectroanalyticsFederal University of Espírito SantoVitóriaBrazil

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