pp 1–12 | Cite as

A new green, energy-saving, and pressing refining process for the recovery of ultrahigh-purity lead in alkaline solution from spent lead plate grids

  • Xuan Zhang
  • Junqing PanEmail author
  • Yongjun FengEmail author
  • Yanjun Lin
  • Xin Shu
  • Xin Jin
  • Yanzhi Sun
  • Xiaoguang Liu
Original Paper


This paper reports a novel green and energy-saving method to prepare ultrahigh-purity lead from spent lead plate grids via a pressing-electrorefining process. The lead plate grids from spent lead-acid batteries were firstly pressed into high-density crude lead plates, then the crude lead plates were electro-refined in a NaOH–NaHPbO2 solution plus additive of JZ04 to recover an ultrahigh-purity lead. This paper systematically studied the effects of electrolyte temperature, the concentration of NaOH and Pb2+, additives, and current density on the anodic stripping process, cathodic electrodeposition process, and electrorefining process via constant current electrolysis, AC impedance, and LSV methods. The lead plate grids, anodic stripping product, and cathodic electrodeposited lead were examined by field emission scanning electron microscope, EDS, XPS, and ICP analytical methods. Results show that under the optimum conditions, the energy consumption of electrodeposition is only 18 kW·h·(t Pb)−1 with the recovery efficiency of 99.7%; the purity of obtained lead reaches 99.9991%, much higher than the criteria of the European (EN 12659-1999, 99.99%) and the Chinese standard (GB/T 469-2013, 99.994%).


Lead plate grids NaOH–NaHPbO2 Lead refining Recovery rate 


Funding information

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21676022) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (BHYC170A).

Supplementary material

11581_2019_2956_MOESM1_ESM.docx (36.3 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 37210 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xuan Zhang
    • 1
  • Junqing Pan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yongjun Feng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yanjun Lin
    • 1
  • Xin Shu
    • 1
  • Xin Jin
    • 1
  • Yanzhi Sun
    • 1
  • Xiaoguang Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing Engineering Center for Hierarchical CatalystsBeijing University of Chemical TechnologyBeijingChina

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